Paraves

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Paraves est un groupe de dinosaures théropodes qui contient les oiseaux et leurs plus proches parents. Il a été défini par Paul Sereno comme étant le groupe de tous les maniraptoriens plus proches des Neornithes que d'Oviraptor[1].

Caractéristiques[modifier | modifier le code]

Photo d'un Paraves actuel de la classe des oiseaux : le Touraco de Pauline.
Squelette d'un Paraves droméosauridé du genre Bambiraptor.

Selon une étude de 2012, une configuration à quatre ailes pourrait représenter l'état primitif des Paraves qui pouvaient utiliser cette caractéristique pour le vol plané, les oiseaux ayant perdu par la suite cet empennage postérieur[2].

Systématique[modifier | modifier le code]

Liste des genres basaux et familles, d'après Godefroit et al. (2013) :

Phylogénie[modifier | modifier le code]

Place au sein des Théropodes[modifier | modifier le code]

Phylogénie simplifiée des groupes de théropodes, d'après Hendrickx et al., 2015[3] :

Theropoda

Coelophysoidea




Dilophosauridae



Averostra
Ceratosauria

Tetanurae
Megalosauroidea

Avetheropoda
Allosauroidea

Coelurosauria

Tyrannosauroidea




Compsognathidae



Maniraptoriformes
Ornithomimosauria

Maniraptora

Alvarezsauroidea



Therizinosauria

Pennaraptora
Oviraptorosauria

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Phylogénie interne des Paraves[modifier | modifier le code]

Squelette d'un Paraves droméosauridé
de l'espèce Microraptor gui avec les empreintes de ses plumes.
La barre horizontale bicolore mesure 5 centimètres.
Deinonychus : Griffe en faucille ou « griffe tueuse » redressée,
courante sur le deuxième orteil chez les Paraves basaux ainsi que chez les droméosauridés, les troodontidés et même certains Avialae basaux.
Ici chez le genre Deinonychus.

La phylogénie des Paraves n'est pas encre stabilisée. Un analyse phylogénétique complète, réalisée en 2017 par Ulysse Lefèvre et ses collègues[4], montrent des différences sensibles, surtout pour les Paraves basaux, avec la principale étude précédente réalisée en 2013 par P. Godefroit et ses collègues[5] (voir plus bas). Ce cladogramme de 2017, n’intègre pas la création de la famille des Anchiornithidae intervenue juste après[6] :

Paraves


Scansoriopterygidae




Xiaotingia



Yixianosaurus








Pedopenna



Aurornis





Serikornis



Eosinopteryx






Anchiornis


Eumaniraptora


Troodontidae



Dromaeosauridae




AvialaeOiseaux






Phylogénie des Paraves, d'après Pascal Godefroit et ses collègues en 2013[5]:

Paraves


Epidendrosaurus



Epidexipteryx





Eosinopteryx



Eumaniraptora

Dromaeosauridae


Averaptora

Troodontidae



AvialaeOiseaux







Voir aussi[modifier | modifier le code]

Références taxinomiques[modifier | modifier le code]

(en) Référence Paleobiology Database : Paraves Sereno, 1997

Annexes[modifier | modifier le code]

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Articles connexes[modifier | modifier le code]

Notes et références[modifier | modifier le code]

Références[modifier | modifier le code]

  1. (en) P. C. Sereno. 1997. The origin and evolution of dinosaurs. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 25:435-489
  2. (en) X. Xing, Z. Zhou, X. Wang, X. Kuang, F. Zhang, X. Du, « Four-winged dinosaurs from China », Nature, vol. 421, no 6921,‎ , p. 335–340 (DOI 10.1038/nature01342)
  3. (en) C. Hendrickx, S.A. Hartman et O. Mateus, « An Overview of Non- Avian Theropod Discoveries and Classification », PalArch’s Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology, vol. 12, no 1,‎ , p. 1–73 (lire en ligne).
  4. (en) Ulysse Lefèvre, Andrea Cau, Aude Cincotta, Dongyu Hu, Anusuya Chinsamy, François Escuillié et Pascal Godefroit, « A new Jurassic theropod from China documents a transitional step in the macrostructure of feathers », The Science of Nature, vol. 104, no 74,‎ (DOI 10.1007/s00114-017-1496-y, lire en ligne)
  5. a et b (en) Pascal Godefroit, Andrea Cau, Dong-Yu Hu, François Escuillié, Wenhao Wu et Gareth Dyke, « A Jurassic avialan dinosaur from China resolves the early phylogenetic history of birds », Nature, vol. 498, no 7454,‎ , p. 359–362 (PMID 23719374, DOI 10.1038/nature12168, Bibcode 2013Natur.498..359G)
  6. (en) C. Foth et O.W.M. Rauhut, « Re-evaluation of the Haarlem Archaeopteryx and the radiation of maniraptoran theropod dinosaurs », BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol. 17,‎ , p. 236 (DOI 10.1186/s12862-017-1076-y, lire en ligne)