Diederik Stapel

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Diederik Stapel
Portrait de Diederik Stapel
Biographie
Naissance Voir et modifier les données sur Wikidata (54 ans)
OegstgeestVoir et modifier les données sur Wikidata
Thématique
Formation Université d'AmsterdamVoir et modifier les données sur Wikidata
Profession Psychologue et professeur d'université (d)Voir et modifier les données sur Wikidata
Employeur Université de Groningue et université de TilbourgVoir et modifier les données sur Wikidata
Distinctions Nature's 10 ()Voir et modifier les données sur Wikidata
Données clés

Diederik Alexander Stapel, né le à Oegstgeest, est un ancien professeur néerlandais de psychologie sociale. Son implication dans la falsification de résultats de recherche est rendue publique en septembre 2011.

Fraude[modifier | modifier le code]

Pendant plus de 10 ans, Diederik Stapel a inventé les réponses aux questionnaires qu'il était censé faire remplir par des participants à ses enquêtes. Les conclusions de ses études, basées sur des résultats créés de toutes pièces, avaient été publiées dans des revues scientifiques dont certaines très renommées.[1]

À la suite de la découverte de sa fraude, 58 de ses publications ont été rétractées.

Le jour de la sortie du rapport qui statue sur sa fraude en novembre 2012, il publie un livre autobiographique, Ontsporing, racontant notamment comment il en est arrivé à mentir sur sa recherche. Le livre est intitulé Derailment ou Faking Science: A True Story of Academic Fraud en anglais[2], et n'est pas traduit en français. Le dernier chapitre de ce livre contient des phrases plagiées aux auteurs Raymond Carver et James Joyce[3],[4].

Liste des publications rétractées[modifier | modifier le code]

Les publications ci-dessous ont été rétractées pour fraude[5]. Leurs conclusions ne sont donc aucunement prouvées.

Titre de la publication Année de parution Journal DOI et lien de la notice de rétraction
Interpretation versus Reference Framing: Assimilation and Contrast Effects in the Organizational Domain 1998 Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 10.1016/j.obhdp.2015.11.002
Correction or comparison? The effects of prime awareness on social judgments 2009 European Journal of Social Psychology 10.1002/ejsp.2173
The impact of comprehension versus self-enhancement goals on group perception 2008 Social Psychology 10.1027/1864-9335/a000152
Measure by measure: When implicit and explicit social comparison effects differ 2010 Self and Identity 10.1080/15298868.2013.790597
Unfinished business: How completeness affects the impact of emotional states and emotion concepts on social judgement 2006 Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 10.1016/j.jesp.2013.03.006
Hardly thinking about close and distant others: On cognitive business and target closeness in social comparison effects 2005 Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 10.1016/j.jesp.2013.03.005
The flexible unconscious: Investigating the judgmental impact of varieties of unaware perception 2005 Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 10.1016/j.jesp.2013.03.004
Distinctiveness is Key: How Different Types of Self-Other Similarity Moderate Social Comparison Effects 2007 Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 10.1177/0146167212474240
Terror Management and Stereotyping: Why Do People Stereotype When Mortality Is Salient? 2008 Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 10.1177/0146167212474240
When we wonder what it all means: Interpretation goals facilitate accessibility and stereotyping effects 2001 Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 10.1177/0146167212474240
The effects of diffuse and distinct affect 2002 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10.1037/a0031698
Me tomorrow, the others later: How perspective fit increases sustainable behavior 2010 Journal of Environmental Psychology 10.1016/j.jenvp.2012.12.004
Similarities and Differences between the Impact of Traits and Expectancies: What Matters Is Whether the Target Stimulus Is Ambiguous or Mixed 2002 Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 10.1016/j.jesp.2012.12.001
Information to go: Fluency enhances the usability of primed information 2009 Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 10.1016/j.jesp.2012.11.014
Distinguishing stereotype threat from priming effects: on the role of the social self and threat-based concerns 2006 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10.1037/a0031270
From seeing to being: subliminal social comparisons affect implicit and explicit self-evaluations 2004 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10.1037/a0031410
Method matters: effects of explicit versus implicit social comparisons on activation, behavior, and self-views 2004 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10.1037/a0031425
The magic spell of language: linguistic categories and their perceptual consequences 2007 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10.1037/a0031271
The self salience model of other-to-self effects: integrating principles of self-enhancement, complementarity, and imitation 2006 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10.1037/a0031426
Unconscious and spontaneous and...complex: the three selves model of social comparison assimilation and contrast 2008 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10.1037/a0031266
The Norm-Activating Power of Celebrity: The Dynamics of Success and Influence 2011 Social Psychology Quarterly 10.1177/0190272512471170
The downside of feeling better: Self-regard repair harms performance 2008 Self and Identity 10.1080/15298868.2012.742330
Status concerns and financial debts in adolescents 2010 Social Influence 10.1080/15534510.2012.738953
It's all in the timing: Measuring emotional reactions to stereotype threat before and after taking a test 2006 European Journal of Social Psychology 10.1002/ejsp.1919
Making sense of war: using the interpretation comparison model to understand the Iraq conflict 2006 European Journal of Social Psychology 10.1002/ejsp.1920
Staff, miter, book, share: how attributes of Saint Nicholas induce normative behavior 2008 European Journal of Social Psychology 10.1002/ejsp.1913
Affects of the unexpected: when inconsistency feels good (or bad) 2010 Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 10.1177/0146167212462821
Event Accessibility and Context Effects in Causal Inference: Judgment of a Different Order 1996 Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 10.1177/0146167212462821
Silence and Table Manners: When Environments Activate Norms 2008 Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 10.1177/0146167212462821
The influence of mood on attribution 2010 Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 10.1177/0146167212462821
Why people stereotype affects how they stereotype: the differential influence of comprehension goals and self-enhancement goals on stereotyping 2009 Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 10.1177/0146167212462821
Stop Making Sense: The Ultimate Fear 2009 Psychological Inquiry 10.1080/1047840X.2012.722053
Behavioural effects of automatic interpersonal versus intergroup social comparison 2006 British Journal of Social Psychology 10.1348/014466605X79589
How to heat up from the cold: examining the preconditions for (unconscious) mood effects 2008 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10.1037/a0029740
Mood and context-dependence: Positive mood increases and negative mood decreases the effects of context on perception 2010 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10.1037/a0029743
Moods as spotlights: the influence of mood on accessibility effects 2008 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10.1037/a0029742
No pain, no gain: the conditions under which upward comparisons lead to better performance 2007 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10.1037/a0029731
On models and vases: body dissatisfaction and proneness to social comparison effects 2007 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10.1037/a0029732
The referents of trait inferences: The impact of trait concepts versus actor–trait links on subsequent judgments 1996 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10.1037/a0029744
What drives self-affirmation effects? On the importance of differentiating value affirmation and attribute affirmation 2011 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10.1037/a0029745
Beauty as a tool: The effect of model attractiveness, product relevance, and elaboration likelihood on advertising effectiveness 2010 Psychology & Marketing 10.1002/mar.20565
When different is better: Performance following upward comparison 2006 European Journal of Social Psychology 10.1002/ejsp.1903
The unconscious unfolding of emotions 2009 European Review of Social Psychology 10.1080/10463283.2012.705989
Emotion elicitor or emotion messenger? Subliminal priming reveals two faces of facial expressions 2008 Psychological Science 10.1177/0956797612453137
Judging the unexpected: Disconfirmation of situation-specific expectancies 2009 European Journal of Social Psychology 10.1002/ejsp.1898
Racist biases in legal decisions are reduced by a justice focus 2010 European Journal of Social Psychology 10.1002/ejsp.1897
The secret life of emotions 2008 Psychological Science 10.1177/0956797612453137
When nothing compares to me: How defensive motivations and similarity shape social comparison effects 2006 European Journal of Social Psychology 10.1002/ejsp.1899
The Self-Activation Effect of Advertisements: Ads Can Affect Whether and How Consumers Think about the Self 2010 Journal of Consumer Research 10.1086/667237
It depends on how you look at it: being versus becoming mindsets determine responses to social comparisons 2010 British Journal of Social Psychology 10.1111/j.2044-8309.2012.02111.x
The Effects of Different Types of Self–Activation on Social Comparison Orientation 2006 Social Cognition 10.1521/soco.2006.24.6.703
The Mental Roots of System Justification: System Threat, Need for Structure, and Stereotyping 2011 Social Cognition 10.1521/soco.2012.30.3.363
When failure feels better than success: Self-salience, self-consistency, and affect 2011 British Journal of Social Psychology 10.1111/j.2044-8309.2012.02108.x
Stereotype Disconfirmation Affect: When Sweet Hooligans Make You Happy and Honest Salesmen Make You Sad 2011 Basic and Applied Social Psychology 10.1080/01973533.2012.682012
What's in a Name? 361.708 Euros: The Effects of Marital Name Change 2010 Basic and Applied Social Psychology 10.1080/01973533.2012.682012
Happiness as alchemy: Positive mood leads to self-serving responses to social comparisons 2011 Motivation and Emotion 10.1007/s11031-011-9266-1
Coping with Chaos: How Disordered Contexts Promote Stereotyping and Discrimination 2011 Science 10.1126/science.334.6060.1202-a
From (Unconscious) Perception to Emotion: A Global-to-Specific Unfolding View of Emotional Responding 2010 Emotion Regulation and Well-Being 10.1007/978-1-4419-6953-8_20

Notes et références[modifier | modifier le code]

  1. Pierre Barthélémy, « Le scandale Stapel, ou comment un homme seul a dupé le système scientifique », sur lemonde.fr, (consulté le )
  2. Lire Faking Science: A True Story of Academic Fraud en ligne
  3. Tomasz Witkowski, « From the Archives of Scientific Fraud – Diederik Stapel », sur psychologygonewrong.wordpress.com, (consulté le )
  4. Denny Borsboom et Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, « Derailed: The Rise and Fall of Diederik Stapel », sur psychologicalscience.org, (consulté le )
  5. http://retractiondatabase.org, recherche par auteur « Stapel, Diederik A »

Liens externes[modifier | modifier le code]