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Le fakelore, « tradition fausse » ou « folklorisme littéraire », est un folklore non authentique et fabriqué présenté par le mythographe ou dans la contrefaçon comme issue de la tradition. Le terme peut se référer à une nouvelle histoire ou chanson construite de toutes pièces ou à un folklore qui a été retravaillé et modifié pour des goûts contemporains, souvent dans un but commercial[1]. Le terme anglais fakelore (mot composé de fake : simulacre, et de lore : trésor) fut créé par le folkloriste américain Richard M. Dorson en 1950.

Références[modifier | modifier le code]

  1. (en) Richard M. Dorson, American Folklore, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, , 13e éd., poche (ISBN 978-0-226-15859-4, LCCN 77077491), p. 4
  1. a b c Dorson, Richard M. (1977). American Folklore. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 4. (ISBN 0-226-15859-4).
  2. a b c d e Dorson (1977), 214-226.
  3. Newall, Venetia J. (1987). "The Adaptation of Folklore and Tradition (Folklorismus)". Folklore 98 (2): 131-151.
  4. Kendirbaeva, Gulnar (1994). "Folklore and Folklorism in Kazakhstan". Asian Folklore Studies 53 (1): 97-123.
  5. Dorson, Richard M. (1973). "Is Folklore a Discipline?". Folklore 84 (3): 201.
  6. Dorson, Richard M. (1963). "Current Folklore Theories". Current Anthropology 4 (1): 101.
  7. Ball, John, George Herzog, Thelma James, Louis C. Jones, Melville J. Herskovits, Wm. Hugh Jansen, Richard M. Dorson, Alvin W. Wolfe, Daniel G. Hoffman (1959). "Discussion from the Floor". Journal of American Folklore 72 (285): 239.
  8. Olson, Jon (1976). "Film Reviews". Western Folklore 35 (3): 236. According to Newall, 133, the German folklorist Hermann Bausinger expressed a similar view.
  9. a b Olson, 235.
  10. Gilley, Jennifer, Stephen Burnett (1998). "Deconstructing and Reconstructing Pittsburgh's Man of Steel: Reading Joe Magarac against the Context of the 20th-Century Steel Industry". The Journal of American Folklore 111 (442): 392-408.
  11. Fishwick, Marshall W. (1959). "Sons of Paul: Folklore or Fakelore?". Western Folklore 18 (4): 277-286.
  12. Adler, Margot (1979). Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess-Worshippers, and Other Pagans in America Today. Boston: Beacon Press, pp.94-5 (Sanders) p.78 (Anderson) p.83 (Gardner) p.87 (Fitch) p.90 (Pendderwen). (ISBN 0-8070-3237-9). Author quotes Alex Sanders claim of initiation by grandmother as a child in 1933, yet the Alexandrian rituals, "so resemble the Gardnerian rituals [written in the 1940's] that Alex's story of their origin is often questioned." Victor Anderson of the Feri tradition tells similar story, but his rituals also seem largely based on Gardner's writings. Author adds: "Gardner, for whatever reasons, preferred to maintain the fiction that he was simply carrying on an older tradition. This fiction, wrote Aidan [Kelly], has put modern Craft leaders 'into the uncomfortable position of having to maintain that stance also, despite the fact that doing so goes, I suspect, against both their common sense and better judgement.'" Quoting Ed Fitch, "I think all of us have matured somewhat. After a while you realize that if you've heard one story about an old grandmother, you've heard six or seven just like it." Quoting Gwydion Pendderwen, "Yes, I wrote a fantasy. It was a desire. It was something I wished would happen. Perhaps that's why there are so many of these fantasies running around in the Craft today, and people trying to convince other people that they're true. It is certainly so much more pleasant and 'magical' to say 'It happened this way,' instead of 'I researched this. I wrote these rituals. I came up with this idea myself.'"
  13. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=2886458 document universitaire

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