Turc ottoman

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Turc ottoman
لسان عثمانى
Lisân-ı Osmânî
Osmanlı türkçesi
Langues filles Turc
Pays Empire ottoman
Typologie SOV agglutinante
Écriture Alphabet turc ottoman
Classification par famille
Statut officiel
Langue officielle Drapeau de l'Empire ottoman Empire ottoman
Codes de langue
ISO 639-2 ota
ISO 639-3 ota
IETF ota
Échantillon

پاَدِ شَاهِمْ چُوقْ يَشَا

سَلْطَنَتْ؛ الله ذُوالْجِلاَلِڭ تَنْوِيرِ عُقُولْ، تَهْذِيبِ نُفُوسْ و تَعْدِيلِ حَرِكَاتْ و اَعْمَالْ ايچُونْ تَشْرِيعْ بُيُورْدِيغى اَحْكَامْ و قَوَانِينِ قُرْآنْ و سُنَّتْ اَحْمَدِيِّه دَنْ اِسْتِنْبَاطَه اِقْتِدَارْ حَاصِلْ ايتْدِكْدَنْ صُوكْرَه اِنْفَاذْ ديمَكْدِرْ.

قُوِّهُ رُوحَانِيِّه و جِسْمَانِيِّه يى يَدِ وَاحِدده جَمْعْ ايدَنْ بُويْله بِرْ رِيَاسَتْ صَاحِبِنه سُلْطَانْ، اِمَامْ و خَلِيفه دِينُورْ. بِنَاءً عَلَيْه سُلْطَانْ يَاخُودْ اِمَامْ يَاخُودْ خَلِفه بَاطِنًا اَحْكَامِ شَرِيعَتِڭ حَقَائِقَنه وَاقِفْ و ظَاهِرًا اِنْفَاذِنه مَاْمُورْ اولاَنْ ذَاتِ جَلِيلُ الْمَقَامْدِرْ.

Le turc ottoman, turc osmanlı ou turc ancien (en turc ottoman لغة تركية Lughâ-türkiyâ ; توركى Türkī ; لغة عثمانية, Lughâ-ı Osmāniyyâ ; توركج Türkçe) était la langue officielle de l'Empire ottoman. Son caractère officiel de langue de l'État était fixé par l’article 8 de la constitution de 1876[1] jusqu'aux réformes linguistiques menées par Mustafa Kemal après 1923, après la disparition de cet Empire. Le turc osmanli s'écrit avec une version de l'alphabet arabe, et se caractérise par une proportion importante de termes venant de l'arabe ou du persan.

Kemal a ensuite fait adopter l'alphabet latin pour écrire le turc et a encouragé les travaux visant à remplacer les mots arabes ou persans par des néologismes d'origine turque.

Alphabet[modifier | modifier le code]

Grammaire[modifier | modifier le code]

La grammaire du turc ottoman n'est pas différente de celle du turc moderne.

Les conjugaisons[modifier | modifier le code]

Les temps et modes[modifier | modifier le code]

Le turc connaît plusieurs temps et modes.

Il existe deux groupes de verbes selon l'harmonie vocalique : les verbes composés de voyelles antérieures terminés en -mek (مك-) et les verbes composés de voyelles postérieures terminés en -mak (مق-).

Forme temporelle/modale Suffixe latin Suffixe ottoman
Progressif -mekte / -makta مقده / -مكده-
Nécessitatif -meli / -malı ملو- (-melü / -malu)
Aoriste positif -(e/i)r / -(a/ı)r ه)ر)-
Aoriste négatif -mez / -maz مز-
Impossibilité -eme / -ama ه مه-
Futur -(y)ecek / -(y)acak ه جق / -ه جك-
Passé non constaté -miş مش-
Présent continu -iyor يور-
Passé constaté -di (forme pleine : idi) (ايدى) دى-
Conditionnel -se (forme pleine : ise) (ايسه) سه-

Les terminaisons de personnes[modifier | modifier le code]

Les déclinaisons[modifier | modifier le code]

Le turc connaît des déclinaisons pour les noms et les pronoms et non pas pour les adjectifs comme dans beaucoup d'autres langues.

Déclinaison des noms
Cas ev (maison) او adam (homme) ادم
Nom Terminaison Latin Ottoman Traduction Latin Ottoman Traduction
Absolu - ev او maison (sujet ou objet indéfini) adam ادم homme (sujet ou objet indéfini)
Accusatif -i (ى) evi اوى la maison (objet défini) adamı ادمى homme (objet défini)
Datif -e (ه) eve اوه vers la maison adama ادمه vers l'homme
Locatif -de/da (ده) evde اوده dans la maison adamda ادمده dans l'homme
Ablatif -den/dan (دن) evden اودن depuis la maison adamdan ادمدن depuis l'homme
Génitif -(n)in (نڭ) evin اوڭ appartenant à la maison adamın ادمڭ appartenant à l'homme
Instrumental -(y)le/(y)la / ile (ايله) evle (او ايله) اوله avec la maison adamla (ادم ايله) ادمله avec l'homme

Le suffixe de pluriel -ler/-lar (لر-) est le premier à s'ajouter au nom. La déclinaison reste régulière ensuite : اولرى pour dire « les maisons » en tant qu'objet défini. Par exemple : اولرى گوريورم (evleri görüyorum) Je vois les maisons.

Déclinaison des pronoms personnels
Cas Singulier Pluriel
Première Deuxième Troisième Première Deuxième Troisième
Absolu ben بن sen سن o او biz بز siz سز onlar اونلر
Accusatif beni بنى seni سنى onu اونى bizi بزى sizi سزى onları اونلرى
Datif bana بڭا sana سڭا ona اونه bize بزه size سزه onlara اونلره
Locatif bende بنده sende سنده onda اونده bizde بزده sizde سزده onlarda اونلرده
Ablatif benden بندن senden سندن ondan اوندن bizden بزدن sizden سزدن onlardan اونلردن
Génitif benim بنم senin سنڭ onun اونڭ bizim بزم sizin سزڭ onların اونلرڭ
Instrumental benimle (بنم ايله) بنمله seninle (سنڭ ايله) سنڭله onunla (اونڭ ايله) اونڭله bizimle (بزم ايله) بزمله sizinle (سزڭ ايله) سزڭله onlarla (اونلر ايله) اونلرله

L'expression de la possession[modifier | modifier le code]

La grammaire du turc ottoman gardait les traits turciques originels à quoi s'ajoutaient des éléments des grammaires arabe et persane. Ainsi, il existe deux manières d'exprimer la possession en turc ottoman.

La possession turcique[modifier | modifier le code]

Pour exprimer la possession, le turc ottoman et le turc actuel ont conservé un système en deux parties formé par l'utilisation du génitif sur l'élément possesseur et du possessif sur l'élément possédé. Le possesseur vient avant le possédé dans la phrase turque, ce qui est une inversion par rapport au système français.

Première personne du singulier Deuxième personne du singulier Troisième personne du singulier Première personne du pluriel Deuxième personne du pluriel Troisième personne du pluriel
Génitif ben-im بنم sen-in سنڭ o-nun اونڭ biz-im بزم siz-in سزڭ onlar-ın اونلرڭ
Possessif -(i)m م- -(i)n ڭ- -(s)i سى- -(i)miz مز- -(i)niz ڭز- -leri/-ları لرى-
Exemple (chat: kedi كدى) benim kedim بنم كديم senin kedin سنڭ كديڭ onun kedisi اونڭ كديسى bizim kedimiz بزم كديمز sizin kediniz سزڭ كديڭز onların kedileri اونلرڭ كديلرى

Il est aussi possible de créer des groupes possessifs indéfinis avec la troisième personne du singulier construit avec un possédant au cas absolu et un possédé au possessif. Ces groupes permettent de créer des types d'objet particuliers qui sont inséparables : Osmanlı Devleti عثمانلى دولتى « Etat ottoman », güneş gözlüğü گونش گوزلگى « lunettes de soleil » (et non pas les lunettes appartenant au soleil).

La possession persane - l'utilisation de l'ezafe[modifier | modifier le code]

Le système de l'ezafe était connu du turc ottoman. Contrairement au système de possession turcique, la construction se fait avec le possédé précédant le possesseur avec une liaison par un -i (-u/-ü/-ı selon l'harmonie vocalique).

Considéré comme littéraire, son utilisation était abondante dans les écrits et dénominations officielles :

  • la Sublime porte se dit بابِ عالى Bab-ı ali
  • l'Empire ottoman s'appelait دولت عليه عثمانيه‎ Devlet-i aliye-i Osmaniye

Il était généralement rendu par une kasra ou une hamza lorsque le mot se terminait par un he, un vav ou un ye mais les diacritiques n'étaient pas toujours apparentes et la connexion par l'ezafe se devinait du contexte (cf. Empire ottoman ci-dessus).

Registres de langue[modifier | modifier le code]

Selon le contexte d'utilisation, il peut exister au moins trois registres de langues :

  • Fasih türkçe (turc formel) : langue de l’administration et de la poésie,
  • Orta türkçe (turc moyen) : langue du commerce et des classes sociales supérieures,
  • Kaba türkçe (turc vulgaire) : langue familière.

Abandon du turc ottoman et remplacement du lexique arabo-persan[modifier | modifier le code]

Les projets de réformes sous l'Empire ottoman et Révolution des signes en Turquie[modifier | modifier le code]

Le remplacement du vocabulaire arabo-persan par des néologismes turciques[modifier | modifier le code]

Les emprunts à l'arabe[modifier | modifier le code]


* Anciens mots toujours utilisés avec le néologisme aujourd'hui.
** Néologismes moins employés que les emprunts.

Mot ottoman Mot en latin Néologisme Signification Remarque
عفو ايتمك ʻafu itmek* affetmek bağışlamak pardonner From the Persian bağışla– "to spare."[2]
أخلاق ahlak* ahlak töre tradition From the Old Turkic noun töre "customary law."[2]
ʻaile* aile ocak** famille From the Old Turkic noun ocak "hearth."[2]
عقبة akabe* akabe geçit passage From the root geç– "to pass."[2]
عقد ʻaqd*, مقاولة mukâvele akit, mukavele sözleşme, anlaşma, bağıt contrat From the Old Turkic söz "word."[2]
عقل ʻaql* akıl us** sagesse From the Old Turkic noun us "intelligence."[2]
علاقة ʻalaqe* alaka(lı) ilgi(li) lié à, pertinent From the Old Turkic root il– "to tie loosely" and "to touch."[2]
علامة alamet* alamet önsezi prémonition From the adjective ön "front."[2]
عمة amme* amme sargı bandage From the root sar– "to warp."[2]
عامل ʻâmil amil etken facteur From the root et– "to do."[2]
عملية ʻamaliyyah ameliye işlem opération, processus From the root işle– "to work."[2]
عامة amme amme kamu public, communauté From the Middle Persian adjective "kamu" "all."[2]
عمودي amudi* amudi dikey perpendiculaire ; survit dans amuda kalkmak. From the root dik– "to plant."[2]
عنعنة a'nane anane gelenek, görenek tradition Created by İsmet İnönü in 1947, from the root gel– "to come."[2]
عنغنوي ananevi* ananevi geleneksel traditionnel Created by İsmet İnönü in 1947, from the root gel– "to come."[2]
عساكر asakir* asker **, çeri** soldat The Turkish words are used in specific contexts such as subay, "army officer" and yeniçeri "janissary").
عصر asr* asır yüzyıl siècle A compound formed by yüz "one hundred" and yıl "year." The replacement does not preserve the distinction between "century" and "hundred years." The distinction is sometimes important: Speaking in 2020, "yedi asır kadar önce" (some seven centuries ago), has a margin of error of some 60 or 70 years and may refer to 1260–1380, whereas "yedi yüzyıl kadar önce" refers to 1320.
بارز bâriz* bariz kesin, belli évident From the root kes– "to cut."[2]
بسيط basîṭ* basit kolay simple, facile From the noun kol "arm."[2]
بعض bazı* bazı kimi quelques
بداهة bedāhet)* bedahet hazırcevaplık quick wit
بشرية beşeriyyet* beşeriyet insanlık humanité
أبيض abyâz* beyaz ak blanc The Arabic word and the Turkish word are used in somewhat different contexts: "beyaz" translates as "fair" or "(white) clean"
جمعة camiʻah* camîa topluluk communauté From the adjective toplu "collective."[2]
جبراً cebren cebren zorla forcefully From the adjective zor– "difficult."[2]
جلسة calsah* celse oturum audition From the root otur– "to sit."[2]
جماعة cemaat* cemaat kurultay société From the Mongolian kurilta "assembly of the nobles."[2]
جمعية cemiyet* cemiyet toplum société From the adjective toplu "collective."[2]
جنوب cenûb cenup güney sud From the old Turkic Gün "sun" or "day," conserved in some Anatolian dialects to mean "sunny place."[2]
جرحة cerahah cerahat irin pus
جريان cereyan* cereyan akım courant From the root ak– "to flow."[2]
جواب cevâb* cevap yanıt réponse From the Old Turkic noun yanut.[2]
جهاز cihaz* cihaz aygıt apparat
جواري civarı* civarı dolayları à peu près
جملة cümle* cümle tümce** phrase From the noun tüm "all, entire."[2]
دفعة defʻa*, کره kere* defa, kere kez fois Both defa and kere are still in popular use.
دفينة define* define gömü trésor From the root göm– "to bury."
دليل delil* delil kanıt preuve
دور devr* devir çağ ère Borrowed from Mongolian, which itself is from Old Turkic çak.[2]
دورة devre* devre dönem semestre From the root dön– "to turn."[2]
أبعاد ebʻâd* ebat boyut dimension, taille From the Arabic buʻd.
أبدي ebedî* ebedî sonsuz toujours The Turkish word literally means "without-end."
أجداد ecdâd ecdat ata ancêtre The Turkish word literally means "father."
أجل ecel* ecel ölüm mort From the root öl– "to die."
أجنبي acnebi* ecnebi el, yad étranger
أدبيات edebiyyat* edebiyat yazın** littérature From the root yaz– "to write."
أهميات ehemmiyyet ehemmiyet önem importance
ألبسة elbise* elbise giysi vêtement From the root giy– "to wear."
أمر emr* emir buyruk ordre From the Old Turkic noun buyruk.[2]
amniyyah* emniyet güvenlik sécurité From the noun güven "trust."
أثر eser* eser yapıt production (musique, film) From the root yap– "to make."[2]
أسير esîr* esir tutsak otage From the root tut– "to hold."[2]
أطراف etraf* etraf ortalık alentours From the adjective orta "middle."[2]
أوراق evrâk* evrak belge document In Arabic, evrāk is the plural of vārāk; in modern Turkish, evrak is used as often a singular, although it should be used as a plural of varak.
أول evvel* evvel önce avant Using the adjective ön "front" as a prefix.
فعال faʻâl* faal etkin actif From the root et– "to do."
فائز faiz* faiz ürem**, getiri intérêt From the root ür– "to produce."
فقير، فقرة fakir, fukara* fakir yoksul pauvre From the root yok– "to not exist."
فرض farz* farz varsayım supposition From the root varsay– "to suppose."[2]
فايدة fâydah* fayda yarar bénéfique, utile
فن fenn*, علم ʻilm* fen, ilim bilim science From the root bil– "to know."
فيضان feyezan feyezan taşkın courant From the root taş– "to overflow."[2]
فرقة fırka* fırka topluluk groupe From the adjective toplu "collective."[2]
فرقة furqah fırkat ayrılık disparité From the Old Turkic root ayr– "to separate."[2]
فكر fikr* fikir görüş opinion From the root gör– "to see."
فعل fiʻl* fiil eylem verbe From the root ey– "to do."
غرب garb garp batı ouest From the root bat– "to sink."
غير gayr gayri olmayan, başka, dışı non-, autre
غذاء gıda* gıda besin nourriture
حادثة hadise* hadise olay évènement From the root ol-, meaning "to be", "to become".[2]
حافظة hâfıza* hafıza bellek mémoire The new word is commonly used in electronics, like computer memory, i.e. önbellek for cache
خفيف hafif* hafif yeğni** léger The Turkish word is rarely used.
حفريات hafriyyât hafriyat kazı excavation From the root kaz-, meaning "to dig".[2]
حق haqq* hak pay portion
حقيقة haqîqat* hakikat gerçek vérité
حاكم hâkim* hâkim yargıç juge
حال hâl*, وضعية vazʻiyet* hâl, vaziyet durum situation From the root dur– "to halt."[2]
خليطة halîta halita alaşım alloy
haʻmile* hamile gebe enceinte
خراب harâb* harap yıkık ruine From the root yık– "to destroy."[2]
حرارة harâret* hararet ısı, sıcaklık température The old word can be used in both meanings in Turkish language.
حركة harekkat* hareket devinim** mouvement
حرف harf* harf ses, imce** lettre From the Old Turkic noun ses– "to voice."[2]
حسرة hasra* hasret özlem mélancolie
حساس hassas* hassas duyarlı sensible From the root duy– "to feel."[2]
حشرة haşara* haşere böcek insecte
خطأ hatâ*, قصور kusûr* hata, kusur yanlış erreur
حطب hatb hatab odun bois
ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ḫaṭavāt hatavat adımlar steps
خاطرة hâtıra* hatıra anı memoir From the root an– "to call to mind."[2]
حياة hayât*, عمر ömr* hayat, ömür yaşam, dirim** life From the root yaşa– "to live."
حيثية haysiyyet* haysiyet saygınlık respectability From the root say– "to count."[2]
حزم hazm* hazım sindirim digestion
هدية hediyye* hediye armağan gift
هيئة hey'et* heyet kurul board (company) From the root kur– "to set up."[2]
حدة hiddet* hiddet kızgınlık, öfke anger
حكاية hikâye* hikâye öykü story Neologism coined by Nurullah Ataç.[2]
خلاف hilâf hilaf karşıt contrary From the noun karşı "opposite."
حس his* his duygu feeling From the root duy– "to feel."
خواجه hôca* hoca öğretmen teacher From the root 'öğret-, meaning "to teach".
حدود hudut* hudut sınır border. Sınır is a Greek borrowing.[2]
حقوق hukuk* hukuk tüze** (judiciary) law From the Old Turkic root tuz– "to command."[2]
خلاصة hulasa* hulasa özet summary
خصوص husûs* husus konu subject Coined in 1935 from the root kon– "to be placed."[2]
حضور huzûr* huzur dirlik** comfort
حجرة hucre* hücre göze** cell
هجوم hücûm* hücum saldırı attack From the root saldır– "to attack."[2]
حرمة hürmet* hürmet saygı respect From the root say– "to count."[2]
إرثية ırsiyet* ırsiyet kalıtım heredity From the root kal– "to remain."[2]
إصرار ısrar* ısrar üsteleme insisting From the adjective üst "above."
إصطلاح ıstılah* ıstılah terim term Borrowed from Persian.[2]
إجتماع içtima içtima kavuşum new moon (astronomy)
إجتماعي ictimai içtimai toplumsal communal From the adjective toplu "collective."[2]
إدارة idare* idare yönetim administration From the root yönet– "to give direction ."[2]
إدرار idrar* idrar sidik urine The original meaning of the Arabic word is "the action of yielding milk". The Turkish word is derived from an old Turkic verb siymek, meaning "to urinate".
إفادة ifade* ifade anlatım narration From the root anlat– "to explain."
إفتخار iftihâr* iftihar övünme pride From the root öv– "to praise."
إحتراس ihtiras* ihtiras tutku passion From the root tut– "to hold."
إحتواء ihtiva ihtiva etmek içermek to comprise From the adjective "inside."
إحتياج ihtiyâc * ihtiyaç gereksinme, gereksinim need iħtiyāj is an Arabic verbal-noun form of iħtāj, meaning "need"
إختيار ihtiyâr* ihtiyar yaşlı old (age) From the noun yaş "age."
إحتياط ihtiyât ihtiyat yedek backup, spare
إحتياط ihtiyatlı* ihtiyatlı uyanık wide-awake From the root uyan– "to arouse."
إقتباس iktibas iktibas alıntı copying (in literature; referencing) From the root al– "to take"
آلهة ilahe* ilahe tanrıça goddess Tanrı (God) + –ça of Serbo-Croatian Serbo-Croat supplied the feminine suffix, –ça, which Turkish lacked.
علاوة ilave* ilave ek addition
إلهام ilhâm* ilham esin inspiration
عمار ʻimâr* imar bayındırlık construction, development
إمكان imkân* imkân olanak opportunity, possibility From the root ol– "to exist."[2]
إملاء imlâ* imla yazım orthography From the root yaz– "to write."[2]
إمتداد imtidad* imtidad uzay space From the root uza– "to extend."[2]
إمتحان imtihân imtihan sınav, yazılı examination From the Tatar root sına– "to test."
امتياز imtiyâz* imtiyaz ayrıcalık "to write." From the adjective ayrı "separate."
انحسار inhisâr inhisar tekel monopoly Ömer Asım Aksoy coined from tekel "single hand."[2]
انسان insân* insan kul** human The new word is used almost only in religious context.
انطباع intiba intiba izlenim impression
انتخاب intihab* intihab seçim election From the root seç– "to choose."
انتحال intihal intihal aşırma plagiarism From the root aşır– "to steal."
ابتدائی ibtidâ‘î iptidai ilkel primary; primitive From the word ilk "first."
ارتفاع irtifâʻ* irtifa yükseklik altitude The old word is only used in aviation, as in "the altitude of the plane".
ارثی irsî* ırsi kalıtsal, kalıtımsal hereditary From the root kal– "to remain."
اسم ism* isim ad name
اِسْكَانْ iskan* iskan konut abode From the root kon– "to settle."[2]
اِسْتِخْدَامْ istihdam* istihdam dağıtım distribution From the root dağıt– "to distribute."[2]
إستحصال istiḥṣāl istihsal üretim production From the root üret– "to produce."[2]
استقامت istikamet* istikamet yön direction
إستقلال istiqlal* istiklal bağımsızlık independence, freedom From the noun bağ "tie, bond, impediment."[2]
استراحة istirâhat* istirahat dinlenme rest From the root dinlen– "to rest."
استثمار istismar* istismar sömürge colony From the root sömür– "to exploit."[2]
إستثقال istisḳāl istiskal aşağılama abasement
استثناء istisnâ'* istisna aykırı exception
اشارت işaret* işaret gösterge indicator From the root göster– "to show."[2]
اشتغال iştigâl iştigal uğraş, uğraşı occupation
اشتراك iştirâk* iştirak ortaklık association
اتمام itmam* itmam tamamlama completion From the adjective tam "complete, full."
ايضاح izâh* izah açıklama clarification From the root aç– "to open."
ازدواج izdivâc izdivaç evlilik marriage From the noun ev "house."
قابليه kâbiliyet* kabiliyet yetenek, yeti talent, ability From the root yet– "to reach."[2]
قادر kader* kader yazgı fate From the root yaz– "to write."[2]
قفة qaffa* kafa baş head
كافي kâfi* kâfi yeter enough From the root yet– "to be enough."[2]
قاعده kaide* kaide taban floor
كائنات kâ'inât* kâinat evren universe
قلب kalb* kalp yürek heart
قانون kânûn* kanun yasa law Borrowed from Mongolian.[2]
قانون اساسى kanunuesasi kanunuesasi anayasa constitution (law) Literally "mother law."
قافيه kâfiye* kafiye uyak rhyme From the root uy– "to comply, fit."
كانون اول kânûn-ı evvel aralık December "Aralık" was adopted during the drafting of the 1945 Constitution because it occurred in the text. With the new name for December it became the subject of jokes on the theme that the transition from December to January—Aralıktan Ocağa—now meant passing through the gap into the fire.[2]
كانون ثانی kânûn-ı sânî ocak January "Ocak," the new name for January preserves the meaning of kânun "hearth."[2]
كلمه kelime* kelime sözcük, söz word Invented by Melih Cevdet Anday in 1958.[2]
قرمز ghermez* kırmızı al**, kızıl red The Arabic and the Turkish words are used in somewhat different contexts. kızıl is mostly used for red hair.
قسم kısm* kısım bölüm part From the root böl– "to divide."
كتاب ketab* kitap betik** book From the Old Turkic root biti– "to write," which is a loanword from Chinese word , meaning "brush."[2]
كفر kufr* küfür sövme** curse From the root söv– "to swear, curse."[2]
قوة kuvvet* kuvvet güç, erk power, force In physics, the old word is used for "force" and the new word is used for "power".
كُلِّيَتْ külliyet* külliyet tüm whole
كرة küre* küre yuvar** sphere
لطيفه lâtîfe latife şaka joke The new word is also of Arabic origin (from the word şaḳā (شقاء)), meaning "pity, being unfortunate"
لسان lisân* lisan dil language dil means both tongue in the physical sense and language, while "lisan" only means tongue in the language sense.
لغات lûġat lügat sözlük dictionary
لزوملو lüzûmlu* lüzumlu gerekli necessary
ﻣﻌﺎﺭﻒ me‘ārif* maarif eğitim education
معاش maʻâş* maaş aylık salary From the noun ay "moon, month"
معباد maʻbed* mabet tapınak temple From the root tap– "to worship."
مادة maddî* maddî özdeksel** material, materialistic The Turkish word is exclusively used in the context of philosophy.
مفصل mafsal mafsal eklem ligament The old word is used for "hinge" (non-anatomical).
مغدور mağdûr* mağdur kıygın** wronged, injured The new word is almost never used.
مغلوبيات maʻlubiyyat* mağlubiyet yenilgi defeat From the root yen– "to defeat."
محلى mahalli* mahalli yöresel regional
محفوظ mahfuz mahfuz saklı hidden From the root sakla– "to hide."
مخلوق mahlûk* mahluk yaratık creature From the root yarat– "to create."
محصول mahsûl* mahsul ürün product The new word actually meant "weed".
مخصوص mahsûs* mahsus özgü peculiar
مقصد maksad*, غايه gaye*, هدف hedef* maksat, gaye, hedef amaç, erek goal
معقول maʻkûl* makul uygun, elverişli reasonable From the root uy– "to comply."
معنة maʻnah* mâna anlam meaning From the root anla– "to comprehend."
معنوي manevî* manevî tinsel** moral, spiritual The Turkish word is exclusively used in the context of philosophy.
مانع mâniʻ* mani engel obstacle
مصرف masraf* masraf gider, harcama cost From the root git– "to go, leave."
مطبعه matbaa* matbaa basım evi printing From the root bas– "to press."
معذرت mazeret* mazeret gerekçe corollary From the root gerek– "to need."
ﻣﺒﺪﺃ mebde’* mebde başlangıç beginning
مجاز mecaz*, استعارة istiare mecaz iğretileme, eğretileme metaphor
مجبور mecbûr* mecbur zorunlu obligation, obligatory Both the new and the old words can be used as either a noun or an adjective.
مجهول mechûl* meçhul bilinmeyen unknown From the root bil– "to know."
مدني madanni* medeni uygar civil Borrowed from Uyghur.
مدنيات madanniyyat* medeniyet uygarlık civilization From the name of the Uyghur Uygur, who established an advanced civilization in Eastern Turkestan in the tenth to twelfth centuries.[2]
مفهوم mefhûm* mefhum kavram concept From the root kavra– "to grasp, understand."
مکروه mekrûh* mekruh iğrenç disgusting
مملکت memleket* memleket ülke country The old word is used for "one's native region"
ﻣﻨﺸﺄ menşe* menşe kök root
مراسم merâsim* merasim tören ceremony
مساحه mesaha* mesaha yüzölçüm area, measure of From the root ölç– "to measure."
مرثيه mersiye mersiye ağıt elegy
مسافه mesafe* mesafe uzaklık distance From the root uza– "to extend."[2]
مثانة mesane* mesane sidik kesesi urinary bladder
مثلا meselâ* mesela örneğin for example
مسعود mesʻûd* mesut mutlu, sevinçli happy
مسئوليات maʻsûliyyat* mesuliyet sorumluluk responsibility
مشهور meşhûr* meşhur ünlü famous From the noun ün "fame."
مشروبات meşrûbât* meşrubat içecek beverage From the root iç– "to drink."
موقع mevkiʻ مكان mekân* mevki, mekân yer, konum location From the root kon– "to settle."[2]
موضع mevzi* mevzi bölge location From the root böl– "to divide."
ميدان meydân*, ساحه sâha meydan, saha alan** open area, plaza While the new word is used mainly in mathematics (as in the "area" of a triangle), it is seldom used with the same meaning of the old words except in compound words like havaalanı (airport), not hava meydanı (older version).
ميل meyl* meyil eğim, eğilim inclination From the root eğil– "to incline."
مزار mezar* mezar gömüt** cemetery From the root göm– "to bury."
منطقة mıntıka mıntıka bölge region From the root böl– "to divide."
ملت millet* millet ulus ulus From the Mongolian noun uluş "confederation of people."[2]
مراث mirâs* miras kalıt** inheritance From the root kal– "to remain."[2]
مسافر misâfir* misafir konuk guest From the root kon– "to settle."[2]
مثال misâl* misal örnek example
مسکين miskîn* miskin uyuşuk, mıymıntı lazy From the root uyuş– "to numb."
معامله muʻâmele* muamele davranış treatment, behavior From the root davran– "to behave."
معما muʻammâ muamma bilmece puzzle, trivia From the root bil– "to know."
معاصر muʻâsır muasır çağdaş, güncel contemporary
معاون muʻâvin* muavin yardımcı helper
معجزه muʻcize* mucize tansık** miracle The new word is almost never used.
مغذي mugaddii mugaddi besleyici nourisher
مغالطه mugalata mugalata yanıltmaca deceptive statement From the root yanılt– "to mislead."
مغني، مغنيه muganni, muganniye muganni,muganniye şarkıcı singer
مغايرة mugayeret mugayeret aykırılık irregularity
مغاير mugayir mugayir aykırı irregular The old word has only remained as a legal term meaning "adverse".
مخابره muhabere muhabere iletişim, iletişme communication From the root ilet– "to transmit."
مهاجرة muhaceret muhaceret göç emigration From the root göç– "to move."
مهاجم muhacim muhacim saldıran, saldırıcı attacker, offender From the root saldır– "to attack."
مهاجر muhacir muhacir göçmen immigrant From the root göç– "to move."
محدب muhaddep muhaddep dış bükey convex From the root bük– "to bend."
محافظة muhafaza* muhafaza koruma conservation From the root koru– "to protect."
محافظ muhafız muhafız koruyucu protector From the root koru– "to protect."
محاكمه muhakeme* muhakeme yargılama, uslamlama judgment, argumentation
مدة muddat* müddet süre duration From the root sür– "to last."
محقق muhakkak* muhakkak kesin(likle) certain(ly)
محقق muhakkik muhakkik soruşturmacı investigator From the root sor– "to ask."
محال muhal muhal olanaksız impossible From the root ol– "to exist."
مخالفة muhallaffat* muhalefet karşıtlık opposition From the adjective karşı "opposite."[2]
مخمن muhammen muhammen oranlanan, ön görülen pre-determined
مخمس muhammes muhammes beşgen pentagon From the noun beş "five."
محاربه muhârebe, حرب harb muharebe, harp savaş war
محارب muharip muharip savaşçı warrior
محرر muharrer muharrer yazılı, yazılmış written From the root yaz– "to write."[2]
محرك muharrik muharrik kışkırtıcı, ayartıcı provoker From the root kışkırt– "to provoke."
محاصره muhasara muhasara kuşatma siege From the root kuşat– "to encircle."[2]
محاسبه muhasebe* muhasebe saymanlık accounting, bookkeeping From the root say– "to count."[2]
محاسبجي muhasebeci* muhasebeci sayman accountant, bookkeeper From the root say– "to count."[2]
محتمل muhtemel* muhtemel olası possible From the root ol– "to happen."
محتويات muhteviyyât muhteviyat içindekiler ingredients From the adjective "inside."
مقدس mukaddes mukaddes kutsal sacred
منتظم muntazam* muntazam düzgün, düzenli tidy From the root düz– "to align."[2]
مربع murabbaʻ murabba kare square A loanword from the French carré.
معتدل muʻtedil mutedil ılım(lı) moderate(ly)
موفقيت muvaffakıyyet muvaffakiyet başarı success From the root başar– "to succeed (in)."
مبالغه mübalâga mübalağa abartı exaggeration From the root abart– "to exaggerate."
مجادله mücâdele* mücadele çaba, uğraş endeavor
مجرد mücerrit mücerrit soyut abstract From the root soy– "to strip."[2]
مدافعه müdâfaʻa müdafaa koruma sustain, protect, defend From the root koru– "to protect."
مداخله müdâhale* müdahale karışma intervention From the root karış– "to interfere, meddle with."
مُلَازِمْ mülazım* mülazım teğmen lieutenant From the Old Turkic teğ– "to touch," which Turkish retains as değ–.[2]
مدت müddet* müddet süre duration From the root sür– "to last."
مدركه mudrike müdrike anlık intellect (in psychology)
مؤدب mueddep müeddep uslu well behaved, demure From the noun us "intelligence."
مؤلفات muelleffat müellefat (yazılı) yapıt (written) piece From the root yap– "to make."
مؤلف، محرر muellif, muharrir müellif, muharrir yazar writer From the root yaz– "to write."
مؤمن muemmen müemmen sağlanmış secured From the adjective sağ "alive."
مؤنث muennes müennes dişil feminine
مؤسسه mu‘essese müessese kurum foundation From the root kur– "to set up." Kurum is recorded in Tarama Sözlüğü (1963-77) as occurring in two dictionaries from the fourteenth and eighteenth century.[2]
مؤثر muessir müessir dokunaklı touching From the root dokun– "to touch."
مؤسس muessis müessis kurucu founder From the root kur– "to set up."[2]
مفكره mufekkrireh müfekkire düşünce gücü thought capacity From the root düşün– "to think."
مفرد mufrett müfret tekil singular From the adjective tek "single."
مفلس muflis müflis batkın one that's gone bankrupt From the root bat– "to sink."
مهم mühim* mühim önemli important From the noun önem "importance."
مؤمن mü‘min mümin inanan, inançlı believer From the root inan– "to believe."
مناسبت münâsebet* münasebet ilişki relation From the Old Turkic root il– "to tie loosely" and "to touch."[2]
منتخب müntahib* müntahib seçmen voter From the root seç– "to choose."
مراجعت mürâcaʻat müracaat başvuru application From the root başvur– "to apply."
مركب mürekkeb mürekkep birleşmiş, birleşik ink From the root birleş– "to unite."
مرتب murrettip mürettip dizgici type setter From the root diz– "to align."[2]
مسابقه müsâbaka müsabaka karşılaşma match, competition From the adjective karşı "opposite."[2]
مسامحه müsâmaha müsamaha hoşgörü tolerance From the root gör– "to see."
مُسَاو۪ي müsavi* müsavi eşit equal From the noun "pair."
مسدس müseddes* müseddes altıgen hexagon From the noun altı "six."
مستهجن müstehcen* müstehcen uygunsuz inappropriate, obscene From the root uy– "to comply."[2]
مستملك mustamlak müstemleke sömürge colony (exploitee) From the root sömür– "to exploit."[2]
مسوده müsvedde* müsvedde taslak draft
مشابه، مماثل muşabbih, mumassil müşabih, mümasil benzer similar From the root benze– "to resemble."
مشبهات muşşabbahat müşabehet benzerlik similarity From the root benze– "to resemble."
مشخص müşahhas müşahhas somut concrete (in concept, the opposite of abstract)
مشكل müşkül müşkül çetin** difficult
مشرك muşrik müşrik çoktanrıcı polytheist
مشتق müştak müştak türev derivative Borrowed from Kazakh, where verbs end not in –mek/–mak, but in –v.[2]
مشتكي muşteki müşteki yakınan, sızlanan one who complains, whiner
مشتملات muştemilat müştemilat eklenti attachment, appandage From the root ekle– "to add."
مشترك muşterek* müşterek ortak partner From the noun orta "middle."[2]
مشتري muşteri* müşteri alıcı, alımcı customer From the root al– "to buy."[2]
مطالعه mütâlâʻa mütalâa düşünce thought From the root düşün– "to think."
متارکه mütâreke mütareke antlaşma armistice From the noun ant "oath."[2]
متعدد muteaddit müteaddit birçok a lot, many
متفن muteaffin müteaffin kokuşuk malodorous From the root kok– "to smell."
متعهد muteahhid* müteahhit üstenci contractor
متعاقب muteakib müteakip sonra, ardından after, thereafter From the adjective arka "behind."
متعاليه mutealiye mütealiye deneyüstücülük transcendentalism
متعلق muteallik müteallik ilişkin, ilgili related (to) From the Old Turkic root il– "to tie loosely" and "to touch."[2]
متعمم muteammim müteammim yaygınlaşmış, genelleşmiş something that has widespread From the root yay– "to radiate."[2]
متعارفه mutearife mütearife belit** axiom
متبقي mutebaki mütebaki kalan remaining From the root kal– "to remain."
متبدل mutebeddil mütebeddil değişen, kararsız one that changes, undecided From the root değiş– "to change."
متبسم mutebessim mütebessim gülümseyen, güleç one that smiles From the root gül– "to laugh."
متجنس mutecanis mütecanis bağdaşık homogenous
متجاوز mutecaviz mütecaviz saldırgan attacker From the root saldır– "to attack."
متدين mutedeyyin mütedeyyin dindar religious Borrowed from Persian, where it means "owner of religion."
متأثر muteessir müteessir üzüntülü sad (person) From the root üz– "to aggrieve."
متفكر mutefekkir mütefekkir düşünür thinker, intellectual From the root düşün– "to think."
متفرق müteferrik müteferrik dağınık untidy From the root dağıt– "to distribute."
متحمل mutehammil mütehammil dayanıklı durable
متحرك muteharrik müteharrik devingen, oynar mobile
مُحْتَرَمْ muhterem* muhterem saygıdeğer honorable
متخصص mütehassıs mütehassıs uzman expert From the Old Turkic noun uz "skilled craftsman" and the intensive suffix "–man" in şişman "fat" and kocaman "huge."[2]
متشبث muteşşebbis müteşebbis girişimci entrepreneur From the root gir– "to enter."
متوازي mütevâzî* mütevazi alçakgönüllü humble
متوفى muteveffa müteveffa ölü, ölmüş mort From the root öl– "to die."
متفق muttefik* müttefik bağlaşık** allié From the root bağla– "to tie."[2]
مزايده muzayyadeh müzayede açık arttırma auction
مزمن müzmin müzmin süreğen chronique From the root sür– "to last."
نادر nadir*, اندر ender* nadir, ender seyrek rare
نغمه nağme nağme ezgi mélodie
ناقص nakıs* nakıs eksi minus
نصيحت nasîhat* nasihat öğüt advice, counsel
نظير nâzır nazır bakan ministre
نفس nefes* nefes soluk souffle
نسيج nesiç nesiç doku mouchoir
نسل nesl* nesil kuşak génération
نتيجه netîce* netice sonuç résultat From the combination of old Turkic nouns son "end" and "latter."[2]
نزيف nezif nezif kanama hémorragie From the noun kan "blood"
نصف nısf nısıf yarı(m) moitié From the root yar– "to split."[2]
نهايت nihâyet* nihayet son(unda) fin(alement)
نكاح nikâh* nikâh düğün mariage In modern Turkish, nikâh is generally used for the wedding ceremony, while düğün is used for the wedding reception or party.
نسبت nisbet* nispet oran ratio From the Old Turkic noun oran for "measure," "proportion" or "moderation."[2]
نطق nutk* nutuk söylev speech Borrowed from Kazakh, where verbs end not in –mek/–mak, but in –v.[2]
رفاه rafāh* refah gönenç prosperity
رغما ragmen* rağmen karşın despite, in spite of From the adjective karşı "opposite."[2]
رئيس re'îs reis başkan president
رأي rey* rey oy vote
رجعت ricat* ricat çekilme retreat From the root çek– "to pull."[2]
روح ruh* ruh tin** spirit The Turkish word is almost never used, except in the context of philosophy.
رطوبه rutûbet* rutubet yaşlık, ıslaklık moisture From the adjective yaş "dank."
رؤيا rü'ya* rüya düş dream
سادهّ sade, سائد sa'aid* sade yalın plain The Turkish word is rarely used.
صفحة safha* safha evre, aşama stage, phase
صفراء safra* safra öd bile
ساحل sahil* sahil kıyı coast
صاحب sahip* sahip iye** owner The Turkish word is seldom used; however, it is commonly used in the context of grammar when describing the possessive suffix (iyelik eki)
سطح sath satıh yüzey surface From the noun yüz "face."
سياره sayyâre seyyare araba, taşıt car Araba is the outdated expression for "car" in Arabic. The current word in Arabic for car is seyyara but in Turkish seyyar, means "transportable" or given to travel.
سبب sebeb* sebep neden reason
سفاره safarat sefaret büyükelçilik embassy
سلامت selâmet selamet esenlik health, soundness
سما semâ sema gök sky
سنه sene* sene yıl year
صحت sıhhat sıhhat sağlık health From the adjective sağ "alive."
سحر sihr* sihir büyü magic
صحبت sohbet* sohbet söyleşi chat From the root söyle– "to say."
سؤال su'âl sual soru question From the root sor– "to ask."
صلح sulh sulh barış peace
صنع sunî suni yapay artificial From the root yap– "to make."[2]
سکوت sükût sükût sessizlik silence From the noun ses "voice."
شاهد şâhid* şahit tanık witness From the root tanı– "to recognize."
شاعر şair* şair ozan poet
شعير şaîr* şair arpa barley
شرق şark şark doğu east From the root doğ– "to be born."[2]
شرط şart* şart koşul condition Invented in 1947 by Nurullah Ataç.[2]
شمال şimâl şimal kuzey north From the noun kuz "side of a mountain out of reach of the sun." Kuzey was also used in some Anatolian dialects, meaning sunless place.[2]
ﺷﻌﺎﻉ şu‘ā‘)* şua ışın ray, gleam
تعلق taalluk taalluk ilinti connection, relation From the Old Turkic root il– "to tie loosely" and "to touch."[2]
طبقه tabaqqa * tabaka katman layer From the noun kat "floor."
طبيعت ṭabîʻat* tabiat doğa nature From the root doğ– "to be born."
طبيعى ṭabîʻî* tabii doğal natural From the root doğ– "to be born."
تعبير، افاده taʻbîr, ifâde* tabir, ifade deyiş** narration
ṭâbiyet* tâbiyet uyruk** nationality
تحليل tahlil* tahlil inceleme (laboratory) test (as in medicine)
تخمين tahmin* tahmin kestirim** guess, prediction From the root kes– "to cut."
تعقيب taʻkib* takip izlem** follow-up From the root izle– "to watch."
طلب ṭaleb* talep istek request, demand, wish From the root iste– "to demand, request."
طلبه ṭalebe talebe öğrenci student (plural of طالب ṭâlib, "seeker" [of knowledge]) From the Old Turkic root igid– "to feed."[2]
تعمیم tâmîm* tâmîm genelge circular, notice From the adjective genel "general."
تعمير taʻmîr*, تعديلات taʻdîlât* tamir, tadilat onarım repair, renovation From the root onar– "to repair."
طرف taraf* taraf yan side
ترصدات tarassut* tarassut gözetleme observation
تاريخ tarih* tarih günay** date (in time) The Arabic word tarih also means "history". The Turkish word günay (literally meaning "day-month") is rarely used.
تسلط tasallut tasallut sarkıntılık (sexual) harassment From the root sark– "to dangle from."
تصور tasavvur tasavvur canlandırma, tasarı imagine
تصديق tasdîk* tasdik onay approve
تصحيح tashîh tashih düzeltme correction From the adjective düz "even, flat."
تصوير tasvîr* tasvir betimleme description
طياره tayyâre tayyare uçak airplane From the root uç– "to fly."
توصيه tavsiye* tavsiye salık advice
تعادل teʻâdül teadül denklik equivalence From the adjective denk "equal."
تعامل teʻâmül teamül tepkime, davranış reaction, behavior From the root davran– "to behave."
تبسم tebessüm tebessüm gülümseme smile From the root gül– "to laugh."
تبديل tebdîl tebdil değişiklik change From the root değiş– "to change."
تبريك tebrîk* tebrik kutlama congratulate From the root kutla– "to celebrate."
تجربه tecbüre* tecbüre deney experiment From the root dene– "to try."
تجلى tecellî tecelli belirme emerge, appear
تجسم tecessüm tecessüm görünme appearance, manifestation From the root gör– "to see."
تجربة tecrübe* tecrübe deneyim experience From the root dene– "to attempt."[2]
تجهيزات techîzât* teçhizat donanım equipment
تداوى tedavi* tedavi sağaltım** therapy
تدبير tedbîr* tedbir önlem precaution From the root önle– "to prevent."
ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺴﺎﺕ tedrіsāt)* tedrisat öğretim teaching
تأثر te'essür teessür üzüntü agony From the root üz– "to aggrieve."
تكامل tekâmül tekamül evrim, başkalaşım maturation, metamorphosis, evolution
تقاعد tekaʻüd tekaüt emeklilik retirement
تكفل tekeffül tekeffül yükümlenme standing surety
تكليف teklîf* teklif öneri proposal From the root öner– "to propose."
تكرار tekrar* tekrar yine again
تلاش telâş* telaş tasa, kaygı worry
تَمْي۪يزْ temyiz* temyiz yargıtay Borrowed from Chagatai.
تناسب tenâsüb tenasüp uyum congruity From the root uy– "to conform."
تنبيه tenbîh* tembih uyarı warning From the root uyar– "to warn."
ﺗﺮﻗّﻰ teraḳḳі* terakki ilerleme progress
ترجمه tercüme* tercüme çeviri translation
تردد terreddut* tereddüt duraksama hesitancy From the root dur– "to halt, stop."
ترتيب tertip* tertip düzen order, tidiness From the root düz– "to align."
تأثير tesir* tesir etki effect From the root et– "to do."
تسلى teselli* teselli avunma console From the root avun– "to console oneself."
تشخيص teşhis* teşhis tanı diagnosis From the root tanı– "to recognize."[2]
تَشْك۪يلَاتْ teşkilat* teşkilat örgüt organization From the noun örgü "plait."[2]
تشكيل teshkil teşkil etmek oluşturmak to constitute
تشرين اول teşrîn-i evvel ekim October From the root ek– "to harvest."
تشرين ثانی teşrîn-i sânî kasım November
تشويق teşvik * teşvik özendirme, kışkırtma (providing) incentive, provocation
تدقيق tetkit* tetkit araştırma research
تولد tevellüd* tevellüd doğum birth From the root doğ– "to be born."
تذكار tezkar* tezkar anılmaya değer worth-mentioning From the root an– "to call to mind."[2]
تجارت ticaret* ticaret alımsatım business
عنصر unsur* unsur öğe constituent, element
عنوان unvan* ünvan san (professional) title
اسلوب uslup* üslup biçem** style
وعد vaʻd* vaat söz promise (noun)
واقعه vakʻâ* vaka olay event From the root ol– "to happen."
وقور vakûr vakur ağır başlı dignified The Turkish expression literally means "heavy headed".
وصف vasf* vasıf nitelik feature, quality
واسطه vasıta vasıta araç vehicle
وسيع vâsi vâsi engin vast
وطن vatan* vatan yurt homeland
وظيفه vazîfe* vazife görev task, mission
و ve* ve ile and From the Old Turkic root il– "to tie loosely" and "to touch."[2]
وهم vehm vehim kuruntu apprehension, fancy
ولاية vilâyet* vilayet il province
تفسير tefsîr* tefsir yorum interpretation, analysis, comment
ضبط dzabt* zabıt tutanak minute of proceeding, trial From the root tut– "to hold."[2]
ضمير zamîr* zamir adıl** pronoun From the noun ad "noun."
زاويه zaviye zaviye açı angle From the root aç– "to open."
ﺫﻯ ﻗﻴﻤﺖ ẕі-ḳiymet)* zikıymet değerli valuable

Débat pédagogique en Turquie[modifier | modifier le code]

Le Conseil national turc de l'éducation, composé majoritairement de proches du président Recep Tayyip Erdoğan et de son gouvernement, exprime en le souhait que l'apprentissage de l'alphabet ottoman, abandonné dans le cadre des réformes imposées par Kemal en 1928, devienne obligatoire dans les lycées religieux et optionnel dans les autres[3]. Selon Erdoğan, qui soutient ce projet, l'abandon de l'alphabet ancien est comparable à une coupure de la « veine jugulaire » que représente pour les Turcs la compréhension de leur histoire et de leur civilisation[4]. Il présente cette réforme envisagée comme un « retour aux racines turques »[3] et affirme que l'ottoman ancien « sera enseigné quoi qu’en disent ses détracteurs »[5].

Ses critiques, en revanche, voient dans ce projet une tentative « d'islamisation » des lycées et de remise en question de la sécularisation et de la modernisation de la Turquie[6].

Références[modifier | modifier le code]

  1. (tr) wikisource:tr:Kanun-u Esasi#Tebaai Devleti Osmaniyenin Hukuku Umumiyesi : « Madde 8 - Devleti Osmaniye tabîyetinde bulunan efradın cümlesine her hangi din ve mezhepten olur ise olsun bilâ istisna Osmanlı tabir olunur ve Osmanlı sıfatı kanunen muayyen olan ahvale göre istihsal ve izae edilir. »
  2. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp et dq Geoffrey Lewis, Turkish Grammar, Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford University Press, , Second éd. (ISBN 0-19-870036-9)
  3. a et b Solène Cordier, « Quelles sont les dernières atteintes à la laïcité en Turquie ? », Le Monde,‎ (lire en ligne)
  4. (en) Ishaan Tharoor, « Why Turkey’s president wants to revive the language of the Ottoman Empire », Washington Post,‎ (lire en ligne)
  5. Marie Jego, « La « nouvelle Turquie » de Recep Tayyip Erdogan », Le Monde,‎ (lire en ligne)
  6. (en) Ceylan Yeginsu, « Turks Feud Over Change in Education », New York Times,‎ (lire en ligne)

Bibliographie[modifier | modifier le code]

  • Nicolas Vatin, « De l'osmanli au turc de Turquie, les aventures d'une langue », Revue de l'Occident musulman et de la Méditerranée, vol. 50, no 1,‎ (lire en ligne)

Articles connexes[modifier | modifier le code]

Liens externes[modifier | modifier le code]