Texte anglais à traduire :
The blood glucose can be raised to normal within minutes with 15-20 grams of carbohydrate. It can be taken as food or drink if the person is conscious and able to swallow. This amount of carbohydrate is contained in about 3-4 ounces (100-120 ml) of orange, apple, or grape juice, about 4-5 ounces (120-150 ml) of regular (non-diet) soda), about one slice of bread, about 4 crackers, or about 1 serving of most starchy foods. Starch is quickly digested to glucose, but adding fat or protein retards digestion. Symptoms should begin to improve within 5 minutes, though full recovery may take 10-20 minutes. Overeating does not speed recovery and will simply produce hyperglycemia afterwards.
If a person is suffering such severe effects of hypoglycemia that they cannot (due to combativeness) or should not (due to seizures or unconsciousness) be given anything by mouth, glucose can be given by intravenous infusion or the blood glucose can be rapidly raised by an injection of glucagon. Glucose is available for intravenous infusion in various concentrations. The highest is 50% dextrose (about 18 grams of glucose in 40 ml of fluid), but this should be given carefully as it is damaging to tissue if the infusion leaks from the vein.
Glucagon is a hormone that rapidly counters the metabolic effects of insulin in the liver, causing glycogenolysis and release of glucose into the blood. It can raise the glucose by 30-100 mg/dl within minutes in any form of hypoglycemia caused by insulin excess (including all types of diabetic hypoglycemia). It comes in tiny vials containing 1 mg, which is a standard adult dose. The glucagon in the vial is a lyophilized pellet, which must be reconstituted with 1 ml of sterile water, included in the "kit". In the widely used Lilly Emergency Kit, the water is contained in a syringe with a large needle for intramuscular injection and must be injected into the vial with the pellet of glucagon before being injected. Glucagon works if given subcutaneously, but absorption and recovery are faster if it is injected deep into a muscle (usually the middle of the outside of the thigh). It has an even more rapid effect when given intravenously but this is rarely practicable. Side effects of glucagon can include nausea and headache, but these can also occur after severe hypoglycemia even when glucagon is not used. There are no serious risks to glucagon use, and it can usually produce a faster recovery than calling for paramedics and waiting for them to start an intravenous line to give dextrose.