Haftarah

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La haftarah (en hébreu : הפטרה - haftara ou haftarot au pluriel) est un texte issu des livres de Neviim (les Prophètes), lu publiquement à la synagogue après la lecture de la parasha, lors du chabbat ou des jours de fêtes juives.

Le texte institué pour chaque occasion a un thème en rapport avec la parasha correspondante. Des bénédictions sont lues avant et après la lecture chantée de la Haftarah par un membre du miniane.

Liste des Haftarot[modifier | modifier le code]

La sélection des Nevi'im lue comme haftarah n'est pas toujours la même dans toutes les communautés. Quand l'usage diffère, cette liste l'indique comme suit:

Quand ces lettres n'apparaissent pas, le rite est le rite commun.

Haftarot pour la Genèse[modifier | modifier le code]

Haftarot pour l'Exode[modifier | modifier le code]

Haftarot pour le Lévitique[modifier | modifier le code]

Haftarot pour les Nombres[modifier | modifier le code]

Haftarot pour le Deutéronome[modifier | modifier le code]

  • Devarim
    • Isaiah 1:1–27
  • Vaethanan
    • Isaiah 40:1–26
  • Ekev
    • Isaiah 49:14–51:3
  • Ree
    • Isaiah 54:11–55:5
  • Shofetim
    • Isaiah 51:12–52:12
  • Ki Tetze
    • Isaiah 54:1–10
  • Ki Tavo
    • Isaiah 60:1–22
  • Netzavim
    • Isaiah 61:10–63:9
  • NetzavimVayelech
  • Vayelech
    • Isaiah 55:6–56:8
  • Haazinu
    • 2 Samuel 22:1–51
  • V'zot Haberacha
    • A: Joshua 1.1–18
    • S: Joshua 1.1–9

Haftarot for special Sabbaths, Festivals, and Fast Days[modifier | modifier le code]

In general, on the dates below, the haftarot below are read, even if that entails overriding the haftara for a Sabbath Torah portion. However, in certain communities, the first two hafatarot below (that for Rosh Hodesh and that for the day preceding Rosh Hodesh) are replaced by the regular weekly haftarah when the weekly reading is Masei or later.

  • Sabbath coiciding with the day preceding Rosh Hodesh, except Rosh Hodesh Nisan, Tevet, or Adar, and except Rosh Hashanah
  • Sabbath coinciding with Rosh Hodesh, except Rosh Hodesh Nisan, Tevet, or Adar, and except Rosh Hashanah
  • Sabbath immediately preceding the second day of Nisan (Sabbath of Parashat Hahodesh)
  • Sabbath immediately preceding Passover (Shabbat Hagadol)
  • First day of Passover
  • Second day of Passover (outside of Eretz Yisrael)
  • Sabbath of the intermediate days of Passover
  • Seventh day of Passover
  • Eighth day of Passover (outside of Eretz Yisrael)
  • First day of Shavuot
  • Second day of Shavuot (outside of Eretz Yisrael)
  • 9 Av, morning haftarah
  • 9 Av, afternoon haftarah
    • A: Isaiah 55:6–56:8
    • most S: Hosea 14:2–10
  • Sabbath coinciding with Rosh Hodesh Elul
  • First day of Rosh Hashanah
    • 1 Samuel 1:1–2:10
  • Second day of Rosh Hashanah
    • Jeremiah 31:1–19
  • Fast of Gedaliah, morning haftarah
    • None
  • Fast of Gedaliah, afternoon haftarah
    • A, Y, some S: Isaiah 55:6–56:8
  • Sabbath before Yom Kippur (Shabbat Shuva)
    • Hosea 14:2–10. Also, communities add either Joel 2:15–17 or Micah 7:18–20. However, many communities nowadays add both these passages, a custom generally considered baseless.
    • Some communities read Isaiah 55:6–56:8 instead.
  • Yom Kippur, morning haftara
    • Isaiah 57:14–58:14
  • Yom Kippur, afternoon haftara
    • Jonah (entire), and Micah 7:18–20
  • First day of Sukkot
  • Second day of Sukkot (outside of Eretz Yisrael)
    • Kings I 8:2–21
  • Sabbath of the intermerdiate days of Sukkot
  • Shemini Atzeret (outside of Eretz Yisrael)
    • 1 Kings 8:54–9:1
  • Simhat Torah
    • A: Joshua 1:1–18
    • S: Joshua 1:1–9
    • Some communities: 1 Kings 8:22–53
  • First (or only) Sabbath of Hanuka
  • Second Sabbath of Hanuka
    • 1 Kings 7:40–50
  • Sabbath immediately preceding the second day of Adar (or Adar II) (Sabbath of Parashat Shekalim)
  • Sabbath immediately preceding Purim (Sabbath of Parashat Zachor)
  • Sabbath Shushan Purim in cities that celebrate it
  • Sabbath Shushan Purim in cities that celebrate Purim
    • No special haftarah: the usual haftarah for that week's parsha is read
  • Sabbath immediately following Shushan Purim (Sabbath of Parashat Parah)
  • Fast days (other than those listed above), morning haftarah
    • None
  • Fast days (other than those listed above), afternoon haftarah
    • A: Isaiah 55:6–56:8
    • S: none

Haftarah for a bridegroom[modifier | modifier le code]

It was customary in many communities to read Isaiah 61:10 – 63:9 if a bridegroom (who had married within the previous week) was present in the synagogue. Customs varied:

  • In some communities, this entire haftarah was read, supplanting the usual haftarah of that week.
  • In some communities, only a few verses (possibly Isaiah 61:10 – 62:5, although the literature is unclear) were read. They were read after the usual haftarah, either before or after — depending on local custom — the closing blessings of the haftarah.

When a Talmudically specified haftarah was to be read on a certain Sabbath (e.g., on Sabbath of Hanukkah), some communities did not read the bridegroom's haftarah, preferring to keep to the standard haftarah of the week. Again, customs varied:

  • In some communities, the bridegroom's haftarah was read.
  • Some communities, even though they normally read the entire briodegroom's haftarah for a bridegroom, now merely appended a few verses of it to the weekly haftarah.
  • Some communities omitted the bridegroom's haftarah altogether, reading the weekly haftarah instead.

Nowadays, this custom has virtually disappeared. No one except the Karaite Jews reads a special haftarah for a bridegroom any longer.


Références[modifier | modifier le code]

  • Katz, Shlomo [David] (2000). The Haftarah: Laws, Customs, & History. Silver Spring, Maryland: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring.
  • Hertz, J. H. (1917). "The Pentetuch and Haftorahs". Jewish Publication Society of America.

Voir aussi[modifier | modifier le code]

Liens externes[modifier | modifier le code]