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KurdJewwomenRowendez905.jpg(400 × 529 pixels, taille du fichier : 73 Kio, type MIME : image/jpeg)


Photograph of three Kurdish jewish family members from the the small town of Rowndiz in the Kurdish mountains in northern Iraq, taken by a traveling missionary in 1905. The town was described by A.M.Hamilton [The narrative of an Engineer in Iraq,1930's] "High on the steep and narrow slope and perched thus between two great precipices is the town of upper Rowndiz, [lower Rowndiz was burned by the Russians in 1915-16]. Rowndiz looks out on mountains on all sides. Jagged and irregular peaks, nearly all of them over eight thousand feet in height, snow-capped for six months of the year". Some of the Kurdish Jews settled in the new and prosperous town of Qamishli in Syrian Mesopotamia post WW1, facing the ancient town of Nusibis [Nusaibin] on the Turkish side of the border. Qamishli possessed a train station on the Berlin-Baghdad Railway, an aerodrome, and a Synagogue. Today, some 75.000 to 100.000 so called Kurdish Jews live in Israel.

Auteur Missionary
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Public domain
This work was first published in Iraq and is now in the public domain because its copyright protection has expired by virtue of the Law No. 3 of 1971 on Copyright, amended 2004 by Order No. 83, Amendment to the Copyright Law (details). The work meets one of the following criteria:

  • It is an anonymous work or pseudonymous work and 50 years have passed since the year of its publication
  • It is a work where the copyright holder is a legal entity or a work of applied art and 50 years have passed since the year of its publication
  • It is a photographic or cinematic work that is not compositive (artistic in nature) first published before 1 January 1999
  • It is work published in Iraq before 1 January 1954, and the author died before 1 January 1979
  • It is another kind of work, and 50 years have passed since the year of death of the author (or last-surviving author)
  • It is one of "collections of official documents, such as texts of international laws, regulations and agreements, judicial judgements and various official documents."
  • It is the work of a body corporate, public or private, published by January 1st, 1980 (Article 20, 1971 law).

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Copyright notes

Copyright notes
Per U.S. Circ. 38a., the following countries are not a participant in the Berne Convention or any other treaty on copyright with the United States:
  • Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iran, Iraq, Nauru, Palau, San Marino and Somalia.

As such, works published by citizens of these countries in these countries are usually not subject to copyright protection outside of these countries. Hence, such works may be in the public domain in most other countries worldwide.

  • Works published in these countries by citizens or permanent residents of other countries that are signatories to the Berne Convention or any other treaty on copyright will still be protected in their home country and internationally as well as locally by local copyright law.
  • Similarly, works published outside of these countries within 30 days of publication within these countries will also usually be subject to protection in the foreign country of publication. When works are subject to copyright outside of these countries, the term of such copyright protection may exceed the term of copyright inside them.
  • Unpublished works from these countries may be fully copyrighted.
  • A work from one of these countries may become copyrighted in the United States under the URAA if the work's home country enters a copyright treaty or agreement with the United States and the work is still under copyright in its home country.

Iraq has enacted Law No. 3 of 1971 on Copyright (Arabic) which came into force on 21 January 1971. Iraq has enacted Regulation No. 10 of 1985 on the National Committee for the Protection of Copyright (Arabic) which came into force on 2 September 1985. Iraq has enacted Order No. 83, Amendment to the Copyright Law (Arabic) (Unofficial English (WIPO) translation) which came into force on 1 May 2004.

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Date et heureVignetteDimensionsUtilisateurCommentaire
actuel16 juillet 2007 à 19:00Vignette pour la version du 16 juillet 2007 à 19:00400 × 529 (73 Kio)FunkMonk{{Information |Description=Kurdish Jews in en:Rawanduz, northern Iraq, 1905. Made available here: |Source=Originally from [ en.wikipedia]; description page is/was [

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