Dragut

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Dragut
Istanbul Statue of Turgut Reis IMG 8583 2010 (cropped).jpg

Monument de Turgut Reis à Istanbul.

Biographie
Naissance
Décès
Nom de naissance
Turgut Reis
Pseudonyme

Dragut Rais, Darghouth

Arabe: درغوث
Italien: Dragura
Activités
Autres informations
Religion
Grade militaire
Conflits

Dragut, connu en Turquie sous le nom de Turgut Reis et dans les provinces arabes de Darghouth (« dragon »), aussi connu sous le nom de "L'Épée tirée de l'Islam"[1] était un célèbre[2] amiral Ottoman[3],[3],[4] d'ascendance Grecque[5],[6],[7],[8],[dn 1]. Il est né vers 1485 non loin de Bodrum (actuelle Turquie) et mort le à Malte. Reconnu pour son génie militaire[9], Il fut décrit par un amiral français[Qui ?] comme « une carte vivante de la Méditerranée, assez habile sur terre pour être comparé aux plus beaux généraux de l'époque : personne n'était plus digne de porter le nom de roi »[10].

En plus de servir d'amiral[11] et de corsaire dans la marine ottomane, Dragut a également été nommé Bey d'Alger et Djerba, Beylerbey (commandant en chef) de la Méditerranée, ainsi que Bey , puis Pacha de Tripoli.

Sous son commandement[9], la puissance maritime de l'Empire ottoman s'est étendue jusqu'en l'Afrique du Nord[5]. En servant de pacha à Tripoli, Dragut a réalisé des prouesses dans la ville, ce qui en fait l'une des plus importante à voir sur toute la côte barbaresque[12] (actuel Maghreb).

Biographie[modifier | modifier le code]

Buste de Darghouth au musée naval de Mersin.

Dragut est né dans un village près de Bodrum, sur la côte égéenne en Asie Mineure, dans le sous-district appelé Saravalos (qui est appelé Turgutreis) ou très probablement dans le village de Karabağ[13]. La religion des parents de Dragut et sa religion à la naissance sont actuellement contestées[14],[15],[16].

À l'âge de 12 ans, il a été remarqué par un commandant de l'armée ottomane pour son talent extraordinaire dans l'utilisation de lances et de flèches et a été recruté par lui. Sous son soutien, le jeune Turgut devint un matelot et un artilleur, et fut entraîné comme canonnier et maître de l'artillerie de siège, une compétence qui jouerait un rôle important dans le succès futur de Turgut et sa réputation de superbe tacticien naval. Le gouverneur ottoman a finalement emmené Turgut en Égypte[17] en 1517, où il a participé à la conquête ottomane de l'Égypte comme canonnier.

C'est un corsaire respecté[9], et craint[18]. Dragut a été désigné comme « le plus grand guerrier pirate de tous les temps »[19], « sans doute l'un des dirigeant turque les plus prodigieux »[20], et « le roi sans couronne de la méditerranée »[21].

Après la mort de son maître, Turgut se rendit à Alexandrie et commença sa carrière de marin après avoir rejoint la flotte de Sinan Reis. Il est devenu un des équipiers du corsaire en raison de sa précision pour toucher des navires ennemis avec des canons. Turgut a bientôt maîtrisé les compétences de capitaine d'un brigantin. Après plusieurs campagnes réussies, il est devenu l'unique propriétaire du brigantin. Turgut devint plus tard le capitaine et le propriétaire d'une galiote, et l'armant avec les canons les plus avancés de cette période, il commença à opérer dans la Méditerranée orientale, en ciblant notamment les routes maritimes entre Venise et les îles égéennes appartenant à la République de Venise[réf. nécessaire].

Émule et protégé par Khayr ad-Din Barberousse, il se signale par ses courses et ses dévastations sur les côtes du royaume de Naples et de la Calabre. En 1538, sous les ordres de Barberousse, il participe à la victorieuse bataille de Prévéza[réf. nécessaire].

Les forces ottomanes, comprenant Dragut, battent la flotte de la Sainte Ligue de Charles V, commandée par Andrea Doria lors de la bataille de Prévéza (1538).

En septembre 1538, à la bataille de Prévéza, Turgut Reis, avec 20 galères et 10 galiotes, commandait l'aile centrale arrière de la flotte ottomane qui combattait la Sainte Ligue, une alliance chrétienne de courte durée composée des Chevaliers de Malte, des États pontificaux, Venise, Espagne, Naples et Sicile, qui étaient alors sous le commandement d'Andrea Doria. Malgré le nombre plus élevé de vaisseaux de la Sainte Ligue, 302, et , 60 000 soldats, Dragut et la flotte ottomane ont anéanti l'alliance chrétienne avec seulement 112 navires et 12 000 soldats. Pendant la bataille, avec deux de ses galiotes, Dragut a capturé la galère pontificale de Giambattista Dovizi, le chevalier qui était aussi l'abbé de Bibbiena, en le faisant, lui et son équipage, prisonniers[réf. nécessaire].

En 1539, commandant 36 galères et galiotes, Turgut Reis reprit Castelnuovo aux Vénitiens, qui avaient pris la ville aux Ottomans. Pendant le combat, il a coulé deux galères vénitiennes et en a capturé trois autres. Toujours en 1539, en atterrissant sur Corfou, il rencontre 12 galères vénitiennes sous le commandement de Francesco Pasqualigo et capture l'office d'Antonio da Canal. Plus tard, il atterrit à Crète et combattit contre les cavaliers vénitiens sous le commandement d'Antonio Calbo[réf. nécessaire].

Jeannetin Doria, neveu d'Andrea Doria, le fait prisonnier en juin 1540 après l'affaire de la Girolata, et il est réduit à galérien jusqu'au paiement de sa rançon en 1544. Après sa libération, il a pour base l'île de Djerba où il abrite sa flotte, mais dont les habitants ne lui sont pas totalement favorables[réf. nécessaire].

En 1548, il fut nommé Beylerbeyi d'Algérie par Soliman le Magnifique. La même année, il ordonna la construction d'une galère quadrireme à l'arsenal naval de Djerba, qu'il commença à utiliser en 1549. En août 1548, il débarqua à Castellamare di Stabia, sur la baie de Naples, et prit la ville avec Pozzuoli. De là il est allé à Procida. Quelques jours plus tard, il a capturé une galère espagnole chargée de marins et d'or au Capo Miseno près de Procida. Dans les mêmes jours il a capturé une galère maltaise, La Caterinetta, au Golfe de Naples, avec sa cargaison de 70.000 ducats d'or qui ont été recueillis par les Chevaliers de Saint-Jean des églises de France dans le but de renforcer les défenses de Tripoli, qui étaient alors sous contrôle maltais[réf. nécessaire].

En 1550, il s'empare de la ville appelée Africa (actuelle Mahdia au nord de Sfax) et part pour sa campagne d'été. Mais les Espagnols, qui depuis l'expédition de Tunis en 1535, occupent La Goulette et contrôlent le Sultanat hafside de Tunis, envoient une escadre commandée par Doria à Africa et s'en emparent (septembre 1550) après un siège de trois mois[réf. nécessaire]. Une garnison y reste jusqu'en 1554, puis la place est détruite et abandonnée (4 juin 1554)[22].

Le , avec Piyale Pacha, Dragut remporte l'importante bataille navale de Djerba sur la flotte espagnole où il détruit et capture 60 navires, et fait 18 000 tués ; avec leurs crânes, il fait édifier près de Borj El Kebir une pyramide sur l'emplacement aujourd'hui connue sous le nom de Borj el Riouss (tour des crânes)[23]. Un de ses nombreux repaires se trouvait sur l'îlot du Ziglione à Porto-Vecchio (Corse) autrefois occupé par les troupes Génoises. Ces dernières redoutaient les incursions du pirate et finirent par quitter la cité du sel faute de terres cultivables et du paludisme qui sévissait[réf. nécessaire].

En 1565, il rejoint les Turcs au Grand Siège de Malte, à la tête de 15 galères, et y est tué par un boulet de canon. Il est enterré à Tripoli en Libye[réf. nécessaire].

Hommages[modifier | modifier le code]

Plusieurs navires militaires de la flotte turque ont été baptisés de son nom.

Notes[modifier | modifier le code]

  1. « There is a strong probability that the mother and father of Turgut Reis were Greek. However, Turkish sources do not take this information seriously. Similarly, the father of Hayreddin Barbarossa and his brothers was probably a timariot commander, who was a Greek renegade, and their mother was definitely Greek. Halikarnas Balıkçısı, doesn't seem to mind this strong probability related with Turgut Reis. On the contrary, he acts to erase such a possibility from our minds, by starting with explaining his birth in his book.
    Turkish original:
    Turgut Reis'in anne-babasının Rum olması ihtimali güçlüdür. Ancak, Türk kaynakları bu iddiayı ciddiye almazlar. Benzer biçimde, Hızır Reis ve kardeşlerinin babalarının Rum'dan dönme bir timar beyi olduğu kuvvetle muhtemel, annelerinin Rum olduğu da kesindir. Halikarnas Balıkçısı, Turgut Reis'le ilgili bu güçlü ihtimale önem vermeye hiç niyetli görünmüyor. Tersine, kitaba doğumunu anlatmakla başlayarak böyle bir ihtimali zihnimizden silmek üzere davranıyor. »

    — Murat Belge

Références[modifier | modifier le code]

  1. (en) Rafael Sabatini, The Sword of Islam and Other Tales of Adventure, Wildside Press, , 7 p. (ISBN 9781434467904) :

    « Ordinarily Dragut Reis — who was dubbed by the Faithful "The Drawn Sword of Islam" »

  2. (en) J Fl 1739 Morgan, A Complete History of Algiers. to Which Is Prefixed, an Epitome of the General History of Barbary, from the Earliest Times: Interspersed with Many Curious Remarks and Passages Not Touched on by Any Writer Whatever, Volume 2, Wentworth Press, , 432 p. (ISBN 9781360782119) :

    « This young Turk, was son to Barbarossa, and Son-in-Law to the renowned Dragut Rais. »

  3. a et b (en) Orhonlu, Cengiz, Belgelerle Türk Tarihi Dergisi "Journal of Turkish History with Documents", , 69 p. :

    « Turgut Reis is one of the well known of Turkish seaman of XVI. century Mediterranean. He is the son of a villager named Veli from the Menteşe - Serulus (Serulus or Seravulos) region. At early age he joined the seamen and became known. In short time he became a captain of levends. In some views his life as a corsair starts almost during the same time that of Barbarossa brothers. Later he began to operate on western Mediterranean seas, working together with Barbarossa bothers (Gelibolulu Mustafa Ali, Künhü'l-ahbar, University books, No: 5959, pg. 300a) »

  4. (en) Uzunçarşılı, İsmail Hakkı, Osmanlı Tarihi, II "Ottoman History, II", T.R. Department of Turkish History, , 384 p. :

    « The whole story of Turgut was written by Gelibolulu Mustafa Ali recited from a relative of Turgut Reis: Sami Beg, the son of Kayıt Hasan Beg. »

  5. a et b (en) Reynolds, Clark G., Command of the sea: the history and strategy of maritime empires, Morrow, , 120–121 p. (ISBN 9780688002671) :

    « Ottomans extended their western maritime frontier across North Africa under the naval command of another Greek Moslem, Torghoud (or Dragut), who succeeded Barbarossa upon the latter's death in 1546. »

  6. (en) Naylor, Phillip Chiviges, North Africa: a history from antiquity to the present, University of Texas Press, , 120–121 p. (ISBN 9780292719224) :

    « One of the most famous corsairs was Turghut (Dragut) (?–1565), who was of Greek ancestry and a protégé of Khayr al-Din. He participated in the successful Ottoman assault on Tripoli in 1551 against the Knights of St. John of Malta. »

  7. (en) Chambers, Iain, Mediterranean crossings: the politics of an interrupted modernity, Duke University Press, , 38–39 p. (ISBN 9780822341260) :

    « Neither was the career of Dragut, another Greek whom we find in 1540s on the Tunisian coast and in 1561 installed at Tripoli in Barbary, in place of the Knights of Malta whom the Turks had expelled five years earlier. »

  8. (en) Pauls, Michael et Facaros, Dana, Turkey, New Holland Publishers, , 286–287 p. (ISBN 9781860110788) :

    « It is named after the 16th-century Admiral Turgut (Dragut), who was born here to Greek parents »

  9. a, b et c (en) Judith Miller, « Malta, Where Suleiman Laid Siege », The New York Times,‎ (lire en ligne) :

    « The Arabs were the first to build a fortress, which the knights improved upon. You can visit the prison that housed prisoners during World War II, and, some say, Turkish prisoners during the Great Siege. This fort has a splendid small chapel, St. Anne's, dating from 1430. There is one marble pillar in the center, the site of the ancient temples. To the west of Valletta, separated from the city by Marsamxett Harbor, is another site of the siege, Dragut Point. A Holiday Inn is now being built on this point, and one hopes its owners will commemorate at least with a plaque the spot where the greatest pirate warrior of all time fell. Dragut Reis was respected as the best Moslem seaman of his era, a true pirate, Governor of Tripoli and a military genius. Many historians believe that, had he lived, the siege would have succeeded. His death, however, prompted squabbling between the two senior Ottoman military officers, which led, in turn, to a series of disastrous decisions that helped save the knights. It was on this point, where tourists now sunbathe and the Maltese fish, that Dragut was mortally wounded before the fall of St. Elmo when a fragment of rock thrown up by a cannonball struck his head. He would have died instantly had it not been for his thick turban. Death came days later in his tent, shortly after he received news from a messenger that St. Elmo had fallen at last. »

  10. (en) Francesco Balbi, The Siege of Malta, 1565, Boydell Press, , 63–64 p. (ISBN 9781843831402) :

    « Born in 1485, he was eighty years old when he came to Malta for the siege. He had been a lieutenant under the famous Barbarossa and, on the latter's death, Dragut became the uncrowned king of the Mediterranean. He was known to his fellow Moslems as 'The Drawn Sword of Islam'. Although in his earlier career he had been at variance with the Sultan Suleiman, the latter had recently recognized Dragut's abilities by confirming him Governor of Tripoli. He knew the Maltese archipelago very well, having raided both islands on several occasions. Among his many successes against the Christians was his capture of Bastia in Corsica (when he had carried off seven thousand captives) and of Reggio in Italy (when he enslaved the whole population of the city). It was Dragut who had captured Tripoli from the Knights of St John in 1551. An old adversary of La Valette, he was undoubtedly the most able of all the Turkish leaders. He was described by a French admiral as 'A living chart of the Mediterranean, skillful enough on land to be compared to the finest generals of the time. No one was more worthy than he to bear the name of king'. »

  11. (en) John Oakes, Libya: The History of Gaddafi's Pariah State, The History Press, , 38 p. (ISBN 9780752471082) :

    « Dragut was made an admiral in the Ottoman navy. »

  12. [[Côte des Barbaresques|(en) Naylor, Phillip Chiviges, North Africa: a history from antiquity to the present, University of Texas Press, , 120–121 p. (ISBN 9780292719224) :

    « One of the most famous corsairs was Turghut (Dragut) (?–1565), who was of Greek ancestry and a protégé of Khayr al-Din. ... While pasha, he built up Tripoli and adorned it, making it one of the most impressive cities along the North African littoral. »

    ]]
  13. (en) Yemişçi, Cihan, Turgut Reis'in Nereli Olduğu Meselesi "The Question of Turgut Reis' Birth Place, I. Turgut Reis Turkish Maritime History Symposium (27–28 May 2011), :

    « Although there is no historical record to which village Turgut Reis was born in Saravalos, region folks in an agreement point to us Karabağ, which strikes our attention as no village other than here has any claim on the issue and the fact that the narrative story that is recited since the 1700s about how Turgut Reis sailed to seas the first time in his life also directs us to this village, brings out the conclusion that Turgut Reis was from the Karabağ village of Turgut Reis sub-district. »

  14. (en) E. Hamilton Currey, Flag of the Prophet: The Story of the Muslim Corsairs, Fireship Press, , 168 p. (ISBN 9781934757550) :

    « Brantome, that Dragut was born at a small village in Asia Minor called Charabulac, opposite to the island of Rhodes, and that his parents were Mahommedans. »

  15. (en) Lane-Poole, Stanley, The Story of the Nations: The Barbary Corsairs, G.P. Gutnam's Sons, , 124 p. :

    « The name of Dragut has already occurred more than once in this history: it was destined to become as notorious as Barbarossa’s as the century advanced. Dragut or Torghoud was born on the Caramanian coast opposite the island of Rhodes. Unlike many of his colleagues he seems to have been the son of Mohammedan parents, tillers of the earth. Being adventurous by nature, he took service as a boy in the Turkish fleet and became “a good pilot and a most excellent gunner.” At last he contrived to purchase and man a galleot, with which he cruised the waters of the Levant, where his intimate acquaintance with all the coasts and islands enabled him to seize and dispose of many prizes. »

  16. (en) Lewis, Dominic Bevan Wyndham, Charles of Europe, Coward-McCann, , 174–175 p. (OCLC 485792029) :

    « A new star was now rising in the piratical firmament, Barbarossa's lieutenant Dragut-Reis, a Greek who had been taken prisoner by the corsairs in his youth and had turned Mahometan. »

  17. (en) Beeching Jack, The galleys at Lepanto: Jack Beeching, Scribner, , 72–73 p. (ISBN 9780684179186) :

    « a Turkish governor took a fancy to the boy and carried him off to Egypt. »

  18. (en) Braudel, Fernand, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean world in the age of Philip II, Volume 2, University of California Press, , 908–909 p. (ISBN 9780520203303) :

    « Of all the corsairs who preyed on Sicilian wheat, Dragut (Turghut) was the most dangerous. A Greek by birth, he was now about fifty years old and behind him lay a long and adventurous career including four years in the Genoese galleys. »

  19. (en) Judith Miller, « Malta, Where Suleiman Laid Siege », The New York Times,‎ (lire en ligne) :

    « The Arabs were the first to build a fortress, which the knights improved upon. You can visit the prison that housed prisoners during World War II, and, some say, Turkish prisoners during the Great Siege. This fort has a splendid small chapel, St. Anne's, dating from 1430. There is one marble pillar in the center, the site of the ancient temples. To the west of Valletta, separated from the city by Marsamxett Harbor, is another site of the siege, Dragut Point. A Holiday Inn is now being built on this point, and one hopes its owners will commemorate at least with a plaque the spot where the greatest pirate warrior of all time fell. Dragut Reis was respected as the best Moslem seaman of his era, a true pirate, Governor of Tripoli and a military genius. Many historians believe that, had he lived, the siege would have succeeded. His death, however, prompted squabbling between the two senior Ottoman military officers, which led, in turn, to a series of disastrous decisions that helped save the knights. It was on this point, where tourists now sunbathe and the Maltese fish, that Dragut was mortally wounded before the fall of St. Elmo when a fragment of rock thrown up by a cannonball struck his head. He would have died instantly had it not been for his thick turban. Death came days later in his tent, shortly after he received news from a messenger that St. Elmo had fallen at last. »

  20. (en) Francesco Balbi, The Siege of Malta, 1565, Boydell Press, , 63–64 p. (ISBN 9781843831402) :

    « Born in 1485, he was eighty years old when he came to Malta for the siege. He had been a lieutenant under the famous Barbarossa and, on the latter's death, Dragut became the uncrowned king of the Mediterranean. He was known to his fellow Moslems as 'The Drawn Sword of Islam'. Although in his earlier career he had been at variance with the Sultan Suleiman, the latter had recently recognized Dragut's abilities by confirming him Governor of Tripoli. He knew the Maltese archipelago very well, having raided both islands on several occasions. Among his many successes against the Christians was his capture of Bastia in Corsica (when he had carried off seven thousand captives) and of Reggio in Italy (when he enslaved the whole population of the city). It was Dragut who had captured Tripoli from the Knights of St John in 1551. An old adversary of La Valette, he was undoubtedly the most able of all the Turkish leaders. He was described by a French admiral as 'A living chart of the Mediterranean, skillful enough on land to be compared to the finest generals of the time. No one was more worthy than he to bear the name of king'. »

  21. (en) Francesco Balbi, The Siege of Malta, 1565, Boydell Press, , 63–64 p. (ISBN 9781843831402) :

    « Born in 1485, he was eighty years old when he came to Malta for the siege. He had been a lieutenant under the famous Barbarossa and, on the latter's death, Dragut became the uncrowned king of the Mediterranean. He was known to his fellow Moslems as 'The Drawn Sword of Islam'. Although in his earlier career he had been at variance with the Sultan Suleiman, the latter had recently recognized Dragut's abilities by confirming him Governor of Tripoli. He knew the Maltese archipelago very well, having raided both islands on several occasions. Among his many successes against the Christians was his capture of Bastia in Corsica (when he had carried off seven thousand captives) and of Reggio in Italy (when he enslaved the whole population of the city). It was Dragut who had captured Tripoli from the Knights of St John in 1551. An old adversary of La Valette, he was undoubtedly the most able of all the Turkish leaders. He was described by a French admiral as 'A living chart of the Mediterranean, skillful enough on land to be compared to the finest generals of the time. No one was more worthy than he to bear the name of king'. »

  22. Pour ce paragraphe sur Djerba et Africa : cf. Braudel, La Méditerranée..., édition 1982, p. 228-231.
  23. Historique de Djerba sur le site Encyclopédie de l'Afrique du Nord.

Voir aussi[modifier | modifier le code]

Bibliographie[modifier | modifier le code]

Marie-Nicolas Bouillet et Alexis Chassang (dir.), « Dragut » dans Dictionnaire universel d’histoire et de géographie, (Wikisource)

  • Fernand Braudel, La Méditerranée et le monde méditerranéen à l'époque de Philippe II, Paris, Armand Colin, 1949 (8 rééditions de 1966 à 1990)
  • Charles Monchicourt, « Épisodes de la carrière tunisienne de Dragut, 1550-1551 », Revue tunisienne, 1917
  • (turc) Ali Riza Seifi, Dorghut Re'is, Istanbul, 1932 (édition en caractères turco-latins)

Liens externes[modifier | modifier le code]