Plaine de Kewu

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Le temple de Prambanan vue depuis la colline du temple de Ratu Boko.

La plaine de Kewu, également appelée plaine de Prambanan d'après le plus connu des temples qui s'y trouve, est une plaine volcanique fertile qui s'étend entre le volcan Merapi au nord, le fleuve Bengawan Solo à l'est, la plaine de Bantul et la formation karsttique des Gunung Sewu au sud, le fleuve Progo à l'ouest, et la plaine de Kedu au nord-ouest. Elle est située à cheval sur le territoire spécial de Yogyakarta[1] et les kabupaten (départements) de Sleman et de Klaten et la ville de Surakarta dans la province de Java central).

Historiquement, dans la tradition javanaise, cette région est appelée « Mataram », identifiée comme le centre du royaume de Medang du VIIIe au Xe siècle, et devenue le royaume de Mataram à la fin du XVIe siècle. It has been an important location in Central Javanese history and culture for over a millennium, since it contains many ancient archaeological remnants of historic significance. If each temples structure was counted separately, the 9th century Central Java period could be said to have produced thousands of temples, scattered from Shiva (Dieng) Plateau, Kedu Plain to Kewu Plain[2].

Apart from the Prambanan Lara Jonggrang complex, Kewu Plain, valley and hills around it is the location of some of the earliest Hindu-Buddhist temples in Indonesia. Adjacent to the complex to the north are Bubrah temple, Lumbung temple, and Sewu temple; to the east are found Plaosan temple. Kalasan temple and Sari temple are to the west, and further is the Sambisari temple. The Ratu Boko compounds are on higher ground just to the south. The discoveries of archaeological sites scattered only a few miles away suggested that this area was once an important religious, political, and urban center of central Java. Despite the smaller scale of its temples, the diversity and sophistication of the archaeological sites in this plain are comparable to Angkor archaeological site in Cambodia.

Agriculture[modifier | modifier le code]

Paysannes plantant du riz près de Prambanan (2010).

For centuries Prambanan Plain, overshadowed by Merapi volcano, was known for its rich and fertile volcanic soil perfect for intensive rice cultivation. The economy of Java relied heavily on rice agriculture, and the ancient polity of Central Java, with their complex political, economy and social systems, flourished on this plain.

The images of rice agriculture scenes and activities can be found in bas-reliefs in Borobudur and Prambanan. The early Mataram Kingdom was dependent on rice yields and tax collected from their subjects. Java was famous for rice surpluses and rice export, and rice agriculture contributed to the population growth of the island. Many of the rice paddies in the landscape remains unchanged from the earlier eras.

Sites archéologiques[modifier | modifier le code]

  • Temple de Kalasan. D'après l'inscription du même nom, c'est le plus ancien temple construit dans la plaine. This early 8th century Buddhist temple built to honor female boddhisattva Tara.
  • Temple de Sari. Once a sanctuary or monastery for Buddhist priests. 8th century. Nine stupas at the top with two rooms beneath, each believed to be places for priests to meditate.
  • Temple de Ratu Boko. Complex of fortified gates, bathing pools, and elevated walled stone enclosure, all located on top of the hill south of Prambanan.
  • Temple de Lumbung. Buddhist-style, consisting of one main temple surrounded by 16 smaller ones.
  • Bubrah. Buddhist temple still in ruins.
  • Temple de Sewu. This Buddhist temple complex is older than Prambanan temple. The original name of this temple is Manjusrigrha and it was a royal buddhist temple of the kingdom. A main sanctuary surrounded by many smaller temples. Well preserved guardian statues, replicas of which stand in the central courtyard at the Jogja Kraton.
  • Temple de Prambanan. A large compound of 9th century Shivaic Trimurti Hindu temple. The construction of grand Hindu temple was probably the sign that Hinduism once again gain royal patronage of Medang kings.
  • Temple de Plaosan. Buddhist, probably 9th century. Thought to have been built by a Hindu king for his Buddhist queen. Two main temples with reliefs of Boddhisatva and Tara. Also rows of slender stupas.
  • Sajiwan. Buddhist temple decorated with reliefs concerning education. The base and staircase are decorated with animal fables. Sajiwan was probably the mortuary temple for a buddhist queen, Sang Sanjiwana or Pramodhawardhani.
  • Banyunibo. A Buddhist temple with unique design of roof.
  • Barong. A Hindu temple complex with large stepped stone courtyard. Located on the slope of the hill not far from Banyunibo and Ratu Boko.
  • Ijo. A cluster of Hindu temple located near the top of Ijo hill. The main temple houses a large lingam and yoni.
  • Arca Bugisan. Seven Buddha and bodhisattva statues, some collapsed, representing different poses and expressions.
  • Gebang. A small Hindu temple discovered in 1937 located near the Yogyakarta northern ring-road. The temple display the statue of Ganesha and interesting carving of faces on the roof section.
  • Gana. Rich in statues, bas-reliefs and sculpted stones. Frequent representations of children or dwarfs with raised hands. Located in the middle of housing complex. Under restoration since 1997.
  • Sambisari. Discovered in 1966, this Hindu temple was buried in volcanic lahar 4m deep. A main temple housen a large linggam and yoni with three smaller temple at the front.
  • Kedulan. Discovered in 1994 by sand diggers, 4m deep. Square base of main temple visible. Secondary temples not yet fully excavated. This temple shared similar design and style with Sambisari.
  • Morangan. Hindu temple complex buried several meters under volcanic ashes, located northwest from Prambanan.
  • Pustakasala. Discovered in 2009 buried in Indonesia Islamic University ground. Together with Morangan these temple is the northernmost of temples discovered in this area.

Les temples de la plaine de Kewu[modifier | modifier le code]

Voir aussi[modifier | modifier le code]

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Bibliographie[modifier | modifier le code]

  • Groneman, I. (Isaac), (1901). The Hindu ruins in the plain of Parambanan Soerabaia, G. C. T. Van Dorp & Co
  • Maria Elizabeth Lulius van Goor (1922). A short guide to the ruined temples in the Prambanan Plain, the Dieng Plateau, and Gedong Sanga. Weltevreden [Indonesia] Landsdrukkerij

Notes[modifier | modifier le code]

  1. Indonesia Handbook, 4e édition, 1988, p. 309 - 17 km north east of Yogyakrta et Indonesia de Lonely Planet, 8e édition, 2007, pp. 190-191
  2. Prambanan and Sewu Exhibition: Safeguarding a Common Heritage of Humanity, 15-24 janvier 2010, Bentara Budaya Jakarta 2010