Patria y Libertad

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Symbole de Patria y Libertad

Patria y Libertad (Patrie et Liberté), ou Front nationaliste Patrie et liberté, a été un groupe paramilitaire chilien d'extrême droite. Il s'est formé en 1970 pour lutter par la violence contre le gouvernement démocratiquement élu de Salvador Allende.

Le groupe était dirigé par Pablo Rodríguez Grez (futur avocat d'Augusto Pinochet). Il défendait une idéologie nationaliste, néofasciste[réf. nécessaire], anticommuniste et anti-parlementaire[réf. souhaitée], et recourait à des actions violentes et terroristes. Dans le cadre de la track two (septembre et octobre 1970), le groupe a bénéficié de financements de la CIA à hauteur de 38 000 dollars, puis d'environ 7 000 dollars de l'intronisation du Président à 1971[1]. Patria y Libertad participait aux manifestations anti-Allende.

En juin 1973, Patria y Libertad participe au premier coup d'État contre Allende (Tanquetazo), qui échoue. Le 26 juillet 1973, le groupe assassine Arturo Araya (l'aide de camp naval d'Allende).

Patria y Libertad approuve le coup d'État du 11 septembre 1973 au Chili, et se dissout pour s'intégrer à la dictature militaire d'Augusto Pinochet. Plusieurs de ses membres ont participé aux exactions de la dictature de 1973 à 1990.

Notes et références[modifier | modifier le code]

  1. Commission Church : "The most prominent of the right-wing paramilitary groups was Patria y Libertad (Fatherland and Liberty), which formed following Allende's Septamber 4 election, during so-called Track II. The CIA provided Patria y Libertad with $38,000 through a third party during the Track II period, in an effort to create tension and a possible pretext for intervention by the Chilean militarv. After Allende took office, the CIA occasionally provided the group small sums through third parties for demonstrations or specific propaganda activity. Those disbursements, about seven thousand dollars in total, ended in 1971. It is possible that CIA funds given to political parties reached Patria y Libertad and a similar group, the Rolando Matus Brigade, given the close ties between the parties and these organizations. Throughout the Allende presidency, Patria y Libertad was the most strident voice opposing all compromise efforts by Christian Democrats, calling for resistance to government measures, and urging insurrection in the armed forces. Its tactics came to parallel those of the Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR) at the opposite end of the political spectrum. Patria y Libertad forces marched at opposition rallies dressed in full riot gear. During the October 1972 national truckers' strike, Patria y Libertad was reported to strew "miguelitos" (three-pronged steel tacks) on highways in order to help bring the country's transportation system to a halt. On July 13, 1973, Patria y Libertad placed a statement in a Santiago newspaper claiming responsibilitv for an abortive coup on June 29, and on July 17, Patria y Libertad leader Roberto Thieme announced that his groups would unleash a total armed offensive to overthrow the government."

Bibliographie[modifier | modifier le code]

  • BLUM, Williams. Killing Hope: U. S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II - Part I, Londres: Zed Books, 2003, ISBN 1-84277-369-0.
  • PAREDES, Alejandro. La Operación Cóndor y la guerra fría. Universum. [online]. 2004, vol.19, no.1 [citado 12 Octubre 2008], p. 122-137.
  • SENATE REPORT: Covert Action in Chile, 1963-1973, a Staff Report of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, (US Senate), 18 December 1975.
  • ASSASSINATION REPORT: Interim Report: Alledged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders, the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, (US Senate), 20 November 1975.

Sources[modifier | modifier le code]