Leonard E. Read

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Leonard E. Read (1898 - 1983) est un économiste américain, qui a créé la Foundation for Economic Education (FEE) en mars 1946. Il s'agit du premier think tank libertarien aux États-Unis.

En tant que président de la Chambre de commerce de Los Angeles, il a combattu les politiques économiques marxistes et keynésiennes qui prévalaient alors, réfutant les accusations d'appauvrissement des travailleurs par la « bourgeoisie », et rejetant les arguments keynésiens selon lesquels le capitalisme est instable et génère un chômage de masse.

Il est l'auteur de vingt-sept ouvrages. Son texte le plus célèbre est Moi, le crayon (I, pencil), publié en 1958, illustration de la métaphore de la main invisible : des millions de personnes participent à la création d'un simple crayon (division du travail), et aucune ne serait capable de le fabriquer à elle seule.

Œuvres[modifier | modifier le code]

1946, I’d Push the Button, New York: Joseph D. McGuire

1951, Conscience on the Battlefield, Irvington-on-Hudson, N.Y.: Foundation for Economic Education

1952, a. dir., Essays on Liberty, Vol 1, Irvington on Hudson: Foundation for Economic Education b. Préface, In: Leonard Read, dir., Essays on Liberty, Vol 1, Irvington on Hudson: Foundation for Economic Education

1954, a. Government: An Ideal Concept Nouvelle édition en 1997, Government: An Ideal Concept, Irvington-on-Hudson, N.Y.: Foundation for Economic Education b. dir., Essays on Liberty, Vol 2, Irvington on Hudson: Foundation for Economic Education c. Préface, In: Leonard Read, dir., Essays on Liberty, Vol 2, Irvington on Hudson: Foundation for Economic Education d. Combating Statism, In: Leonard Read, dir., Essays on Liberty, Vol 2, Irvington on Hudson: Foundation for Economic Education, pp9-22 e. Two ways to stop Strikes, In: Leonard Read, dir., Essays on Liberty, Vol 2, Irvington on Hudson: Foundation for Economic Education, pp205-213 f. Victims of social leveling, In: Leonard Read, dir., Essays on Liberty, Vol 2, Irvington on Hudson: Foundation for Economic Education, pp279-293 g. Two kinds of Exchange, In: Leonard Read, dir., Essays on Liberty, Vol 2, Irvington on Hudson: Foundation for Economic Education, pp376-379

1956, Unearned Riches, In: Mary Sennholz, dir., On Freedom and Free Enterprise, Van Nostrand, Princeton, pp188-195

1958, "I, Pencil", The Freeman, December Repris en 1988, I Pencil, In: Paul L. Poirot, dir, The Philosophy of Freedom, The Foundation for Economic Education: Irvington on Hudson NY, pp137-142 Repris en 1996, "I, Pencil", The Freeman, May, Vol 46, n°5 Traduction en français par Hervé de Quengo, Traduction de Moi, le crayon

1959, Nave Nervousness, The Freeman, August, Vol 9, n°8

1960, How to Reduce Taxes, The Freeman, July Repris en 1998, "How to Reduce Taxes. Only in Moral Philosophy Can the Case for Freedom Be Won", The Freeman, April, Vol 48, n°4

1961, Conscience of the Majority, The Freeman, Mars, Vol 11, n°3

1962, Elements of Libertarian Leadership, Irvington-on-Hudson, N.Y.: Foundation for Economic Education

1964, Anything That's Peaceful Nouvelle édition en 1992 Nouvelle édition en 1998, Irvington-on-Hudson, N.Y.: Foundation for Economic Education

1966, a. The Case for Willing Exchange, The Freeman, Septembre, Vol 16, n°9 b. Men of Prey, The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty, octobre, Vol 16, n°10, [lire en ligne]

1967, a. Deeper Than You Think, Irvington-on-Hudson, N.Y.: Foundation for Economic Education b. The Basic Realities, The Freeman, Novembre, Vol 17, n°11 c. The Rise and the Fall, The Freeman, May, Vol 17, n°5 d. The Curse and Cure of Covetousness (La malédiction et la guérison de la convoitise), The Freeman, December, Vol 17, n°12

1969, Let Freedom Reign, Irvington-on-Hudson, N.Y.: Foundation for Economic

1970, Reflections on the Guilt Complex, The Freeman, January, Vol 20, n°1

1971, a. To Abdicate or Not, In: Floyd A. Harper, dir., Toward Liberty: Essays in Honor of Ludwig von Mises on the Occasion of His 90th Birthday, September 29, Vol. 2, Menlo Park, Calif.: Institute for Humane Studies, pp299–301 b. The Worrycrats, The Freeman, Avril, Vol 21, n°4

1972, Economics: A Branch of Moral Philosophy, The Freeman, January Repris en 1998, Economics: A Branch of Moral Philosophy. Mastering the Study of Political Economy Is Not Really Difficult, The Freeman, Vol 48, n°6

1973, a. Sheltering Ideologies, The Freeman, Février, Vol 23, n°2 b. Pilot Errors, The Freeman, April, Vol 23, n°4

1974, "Laws Versus Tyranny", The Freeman, October, Vol 24, n°10

1975, Castles in the Air, Irvington-on-Hudson, N.Y.: Foundation for Economic Education

1976, Comes The Dawn, Irvington-on-Hudson, N.Y. : The Foundation for Economic Education, Inc.

1978, a. Vision, Irvington-on-Hudson, N.Y.: The Foundation for Economic Education, Inc. b. Liberty: Legacy of Truth, Irvington-on-Hudson: Foundation for Economic Education c. Glory Be!, The Freeman, December, Vol 28, n°12

1981, How Do We Know?, Irvington-on-Hudson, N.Y.: Foundation for Economic

1982, The Path of Duty, The Foundation for Economic Education, Inc., Irvington-on-Hudson

1983, The Essence of Americanism, The Freeman, Novembre Repris en 1988, In: Paul L. Poirot, dir, The Philosophy of Freedom, The Foundation for Economic Education: Irvington on Hudson NY, pp3-15 Repris en 1996, The Essence of Americanism, In: Robert D. Gorglione, dir., The Foundations of American Constitutional Government, The Foundation for Economic Education: Irvington on Hudson NY, pp19-32 Repris en 1998, The Essence of Americanism. The Ideas of Self-Reliance and Private Property Created a Spiritual, Political, and Economic Revolution, The Freeman, September, Vol 48, n°9

1988, Looking out for Yourself, In: Paul L. Poirot, dir, The Philosophy of Freedom, The Foundation for Economic Education: Irvington on Hudson NY, pp107-114, texte inédit écrit en 1956

1995, Conscience on the Battlefield, In: Edmund A. Opitz, dir., Leviathan at War, The Foundation for Economic Education: Irvington on Hudson NY, pp63-78


Accent on the Right.

To Free or Freeze.

The Freedom Freeway.

Having My Way.

The Love of Liberty.

Pattern for Revolt.

Seeds of Progress.

Talking to Myself.

Then Truth Will Out.

Who's Listening?

Littérature secondaire[modifier | modifier le code]

1978, John Chamberlain, commentaire du livre de Leonard Read, "Vision", The Freeman, June, Vol 28, n°6 1982, Perry E. Gresham, commentaire du livre de Leonard E. Read, "The Path of Duty", The Freeman, December, Vol 32, n°12 1983, George C. Roche III, Remembering Leonard Read. A Special Kind of Leadership, Imprimis, Décembre, Vol 12, n°12 1993, Mary Sennholz, Leonard E. Read: Philosopher of Freedom, Irvington-on-Hudson, N.Y.: Foundation for Economic Education 1996, Mary Sennholz, "Leonard Read, the Founder and Builder", The Freeman, May, Vol 46, n°5 1998, Bettina Bien Greaves, Leonard E. Read, Crusader, The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty, September, Vol 48, n°9 Edward H. Crane, Introduction, In: Leonard Read, Anything That's Peaceful, Irvington-on-Hudson, N.Y.: Foundation for Economic Education, ppix-xii Edmund A. Opitz, Leonard E. Read: A Portrait, The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty, septembre, Vol. 48, n°9


Liens externes[modifier | modifier le code]