James March

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James G. March

Activités Professeur d'université
Naissance 1928
à Cleveland, Ohio (États-Unis)
Langue d'écriture anglais
Mouvement théorie des organisations
Genres économie, sociologie, sciences de l'éducation, psychologie, gestion, poésie

James Gardner March (né en 1928, Cleveland, États-Unis), professeur émérite à Stanford, est un des pionniers de la théorie des organisations, dont l'objet est de comprendre comment une organisation évolue, s'adapte à son environnement et modifie celui-ci, en se penchant notamment sur la manière dont sont prises et mises en œuvre les décisions.

Le livre qu'il publie en 1958 avec Herbert Simon, Les organisations[1], est considéré avec Une théorie comportementale de l'entreprise[2] comme le fondement de la théorie des organisations. Herbert Simon d'ailleurs recevra le prix de la Banque de Suède en sciences économiques en mémoire d'Alfred Nobel en 1978, notamment pour les développements fait avec J. March sur la rationalité limitée. Cette théorie montre que la plupart des décideurs suivent des règles préétablies et que leur action consiste en général plus à identifier quelle règle doit s'appliquer en fonction du contexte et de ce qu'ils perçoivent de la situation plutôt qu'à chercher une impossible ou coûteuse optimisation.

March s'intéresse ensuite à l’apprentissage organisationnel (comment les organisations apprennent de leur expérience et de celle des autres, comment les règles internes de l'organisation évoluent). Ces travaux inspirent notamment toute la littérature sur la gestion des connaissances (knowledge management)

En sciences politiques et sociologie, March est, avec Johan Olsen, un des fondateurs du néo-institutionnalisme avec leur livre Redécouvrir les institutions[3] (1989).

Il a également travaillé sur la psychologie des préférences, notamment sur la manière dont l'expérience favorisait ou non l'aversion au risque.

Poète et grand amateur de littérature, March a enseigné aux étudiants de la Stanford Graduate School of Business un cours sur le leadership, fondé sur des situations empruntées aux œuvres de Miguel de Cervantes, William Shakespeare, Léon Tolstoï, William Butler Yeats, Henrik Ibsen ou George Bernard Shaw, dont il a tiré deux films sur Que peuvent apprendre les leaders de Don Quichotte et Guerre et Paix.

Biographie[modifier | modifier le code]

Né en 1928 à Cleveland, Ohio, James March[4], après un doctorat d'anthropologie à Yale sur la manière dont un groupe contrôle ses membres en manipulant leurs orientations cognitives[5], rejoint à la toute jeune Graduate School of Industrial Administration du Carnegie Institute of Technology l'équipe de Herbert Simon qui étudie les mécanismes de prise de décision au sein des organisations. Il travaille notamment avec Leland Bach et Richard Cyert.

En 1964, James March devient doyen de la faculté des sciences sociales de l'université de Californie à Irvine, dans la banlieue de Los Angeles. C'est l'époque des premières communautés libres étudiantes des flowerchidren et March lutte contre une "reprise en main" de l'université par ses administrateurs.

Après une année sabbatique à Bergen (Norvège), il rejoint en 1970 le département de sciences de l'éducation de l'université de Stanford, qu'il ne quittera plus, tout en enseignant et en encadrant des étudiants au sein des départements d'économie, de psychologie, de sociologie, de sciences politiques et de la Business School.

En 1978, malgré ses idées progressistes notoires, il est nommé senior fellow à l'Institut Hoover, think tank républicain où se côtoient des économistes libéraux comme Milton Friedman. Il en est écarté en 1988 pour certaines prises de position désapprouvées par ses collègues et devient de 1989 à sa retraite le directeur de l'institut scandinave pour les recherches sur les organisations SCANCOR (enclave du département d'éducation qui accueille des doctorants ou chercheurs invités de tous les pays scandinaves).

Œuvres[modifier | modifier le code]

Livres[modifier | modifier le code]

  • An introduction to the theory and measurement of influence (1955)
  • James G. March and Herbert A. Simon, Organizations. New York: Wiley, 1958. 2nd ed., Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1993. Translated into Arabic, Chinese, Dutch, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Polish, Portuguese, and Spanish.
  • Richard M. Cyert and James G. March, A Behavioral Theory of the Firm. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1963. 2nd ed., Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1992. Translated into Chinese, French, German, Italian, and Japanese.
  • James G. March, ed., Handbook of Organizations. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally, 1965.
  • Heinz Eulau and James G. March, eds., Political Science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1969.
  • Bernard R. Gelbaum and James G. March, Mathematics for the Social and Behavioral Sciences: Probability, Calculus and Statistics. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders Co., 1969.
  • Michael D. Cohen and James G. March, Leadership and Ambiguity: The American College President. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1974. 2nd ed., Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1986.
  • Charles A. Lave and James G. March, An Introduction to Models in the Social Sciences. New York: Harper and Row, 1975. 2nd ed., Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1993. Translated into Dutch, Japanese, and Spanish. (1975) ISBN 0-8191-8381-4
  • James G. March and Johan P. Olsen, Ambiguity and Choice in Organizations. Bergen, Norway: Universitetsforlaget, 1976. Translated into Japanese. (1980) ISBN 82-00-01960-8
  • James G. March, Autonomy as a Factor in Group Organization: A Study in Politics, New York: Arno Press, 1980. ISBN 0-405-12980-7
  • James G. March and Roger Weissinger-Baylon, eds., Ambiguity and Command: Organizational Perspectives on Military Decision Making. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1986.
  • James G. March, Decisions and Organizations. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988. ISBN 0-631-16856-7. Translated into French, German, Italian, and Japanese.
  • James G. March and Johan P. Olsen, Rediscovering Institutions: The Organizational Basis of Politics. New York: Free Press/Macmillan, 1989. Translated into Italian and Spanish. ISBN 0-02-920115-2
  • James G. March, A Primer on Decision Making: How Decisions Happen. New York, NY: The Free Press, 1994. Translated into Chinese, Greek, and Italian. ISBN 0-02-920035-0
  • James G. March, Fornuft og Forandring: Ledelse i en Verden Beriget av Uklarhet (Danish: Reason and Change: Leadership in a World Enriched by Ambiguity), articles selected and translated by Kristian Kreiner and Marianne Risberg. Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur, 1995.
  • James G. March and Johan P. Olsen, Democratic Governance. New York, NY: The Free Press, 1995. ISBN 0-02-874054-8. Translated into Italian.
  • James G. March, The Pursuit of Organizational Intelligence. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1999. ISBN 0-631-21102-0.
  • James G. March, Martin Schulz, and Xueguang Zhou, The Dynamics of Rules: Change in Written Organizational Codes. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-8047-3996-X. Translated into Chinese and Italian.
  • Mie Augier and James G. March, eds., Economics of Change, Choice, and Organization: Essays in Memory of Richard M. Cyert. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, Ltd., 2002.
  • James G. March and Thierry Weil, Le leadership dans les organisations. (French: Leadership in Organizations). Paris: Les Presses de l’École des Mines, 2003. Translated into English as On Leadership. See below.
  • Mie Augier and James G. March, eds., Models of a Man: Essays in Memory of Herbert A. Simon. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004.
  • James G. March, Valg, Vane og Vision: Perspektiver på Aspiration og Adfærd (Danish: Choice, Habit and Vision: Perspectives on Aspirations and Behavior), articles selected and translated by Kristian Kreiner and Mie Augier. Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur, 2005.
  • James G. March, Szervezeti tanulás és döntéshozatal (Hungarian: Organizational Learning and Decision Making), articles selected and translated by students at the László Rajk College. Budapest: Alinea Kiadó, 2005.
  • James G. March and Thierry Weil, On Leadership. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers, 2005. ISBN 1-4051-3247-7. Translated into Spanish, Korean, Italian, Chinese.
  • James G. March, Explorations in Organizations. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2008.
  • James G. March, The Ambiguities of Experience. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, forthcoming.

Films[modifier | modifier le code]

  • Passion and Discipline: Don Quixote’s Lessons for Leadership. Un film (67 minutes) conçu et écrit par James G. March, produit et réalisé par Steven C. Schecter. Schecter Films (in association with the Stanford Graduate School of Business), 2003.
  • Heroes and History: The Lessons for Leadership from Tolstoy’s War and Peace. Un film (65 minutes) conçu et écrit par James G. March, produit et réalisé par Steven C. Schecter. Schecter Films (in association with the Yale School of Management and the Copenhagen business School), 2008.

Poésie[modifier | modifier le code]

  • James G. March, Academic Notes. London: Poets' and Painters' Press, 1974.
  • James G. March, Aged Wisconsin. London: Poets' and Painters' Press, 1977.
  • James G. March, Pleasures of the Process, London: Poets' and Painters' Press, 1980.
  • James G. March, Slow Learner. London: Poets' and Painters' Press, 1985.
  • James G. March, Minor Memos. London: Poets' and Painters' Press, 1990.
  • James G. March, Late Harvest. Palo Alto, CA: Bonde Press, 2000.
  • James G. March, Footprints. Palo Alto, CA: Bonde Press, 2005.
  • James G. March, Quiet Corners. Palo Alto, CA: Bonde Press, 2008.

Sélection d'articles[modifier | modifier le code]

  • Richard E. Levitan and James G. March, "A Set of Necessary, Sufficient, and Independent Conditions for Proportional Representation" (abstract), Econometrica 25 (1957) 36l-362.
  • James G. March, "A Behavioral Theory of Decision Making", Personnel Administration 2l(3) (1958) 8-l0.
  • Richard M. Cyert, William R. Dill, and James G. March, "The Role of Expectations in Business Decision-Making", Administrative Science Quarterly 3 (1958) 309-340.
  • James G. March, "The Business Firm as a Political Coalition", Journal of Politics, 24 (1962) 662-678.
  • James G. March, "The Power of Power", pp. 39–70 in David Easton, ed., Varieties of Political Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1966.
  • James G. March, "The Technology of Foolishness", Civiløkonomen (Copenhagen), l8 (197l) 4, 4-l2.
  • Michael D. Cohen (en), James G. March, Johan P. Olsen (en), "A Garbage Can Model of Organizational Choice", Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 17, No. 1. (Mar., 1972), pp. 1–25.
  • James G. March and Johan P. Olsen (en), "The Uncertainty of the Past: Organizational Learning Under Ambiguity", European Journal of Political Research 3 (1975) l47-l7l.
  • James G. March, "Bounded Rationality, Ambiguity, and the Engineering of Choice", Bell Journal of Economics, 9 (1978) 587-608.
  • James G. March, "Ambiguity and the Engineering of Choice", International Studies of Management and Organizations, 9 (1979) 9-39.
  • James C. March and James G. March, "Performance Sampling and Weibull Distributions", Administrative Science Quarterly, 26 (198l) 90-92.
  • Martha S. Feldman and James G. March, "Information in Organizations as Signal and Symbol", Administrative Science Quarterly, 26 (198l) l7l-l86.
  • James G. March, "Decisions in Organizations and Theories of Choice", pp. 205–244 in Andrew Van de Ven and William Joyce, eds., Perspectives on Organization Design and Behavior. New York, NY: Wiley Interscience, 198l.
  • James G. March, "Footnotes to Organizational Change", Administrative Science Quarterly, 26 (198l) 563-577.
  • Daniel Levinthal and James G. March, "A Model of Adaptive Organizational Search", Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2 (1981) 307-333.
  • James G. March and Zur Shapira, "Behavioral Decision Theory and Organizational Decision Theory", pp. 92–115 in Gerardo Ungson and Daniel Braunstein, eds., Decision Making: An Interdisciplinary Inquiry. Boston, MA: Kent Publishing Company, 1982.
  • J. Richard Harrison and James G. March, "Decision Making and Post-Decision Surprises", Administrative Science Quarterly, 29 (1984) 26-42.
  • James G. March and Guje Sevón, "Gossip, Information, and Decision-Making", pp. 95–107 in Lee S. Sproull and J. Patrick Crecine, eds., Advances in Information Processing in Organizations, Vol. I. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1984.
  • James G. March and Johan P. Olsen (en), "The New Institutionalism: Organizational Factors in Political Life", American Political Science Review, 78 (1984) 734-749.
  • Scott R. Herriott, Daniel Levinthal, and James G. March, "Learning from Experience in Organizations", American Economic Review, 75 (1985) 298-302.
  • James R. Glenn, Jr., and James G. March, "Presidential Time Allocation 1970-1984", pp. 263–266 in Michael D. Cohen and James G. March, Leadership and Ambiguity, 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1986.
  • Vicki Eaton Baier, James G. March, and Harald Sætren, "Implementation and Ambiguity", Scandinavian Journal of Management Studies, 2 (1986) 197-212.
  • James G. March, "Theories of Making Choice and Making Decisions", pp. 305–325 in Rolf Wolff, ed., Organizing Industrial Development - Visible Guiding Hands. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1986.
  • James G. March, "Ambiguity and Accounting: The Elusive Link between Information and Decision Making", Accounting, Organizations and Society, 12 (1987) 153-168. Also pp. 31–49 in Barry E. Cushing, ed., Accounting and Culture, American Accounting Association, 1987.
  • James G. March and Zur Shapira, "Managerial Perspectives on Risk and Risk Taking", Management Science, 33 (1987) 1404-1418.
  • Barbara Levitt and James G. March, "Organizational Learning", Annual Review of Sociology, 14 (1988), 319-340.
  • James G. March and Guje Sevón, "Behavioral Perspectives on Theories of the Firm", pp. 369–402 in W. Fred van Raaij, Gery M. van Veldhoven, and Karl-Erik Wärneryd, eds., Handbook of Economic Psychology. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988.
  • James G. March and Lee S. Sproull, "Technology, Management, and Competitive Advantage", pp. 144–173 in Paul S. Goodman, Lee S. Sproull and Associates, Technology and Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1990.
  • James G. March, Lee S. Sproull, and Michal Tamuz, "Learning from Samples of One or Fewer",Organization Science, 2 (1991) 1-13.
  • James G. March, "Exploration and Exploitation in Organizational Learning", Organization Science, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Feb., 1991) pp. 71–87.
  • James G. March, "Organizational Consultants and Organizational Research", Journal of Applied Communication Research, 19 (1991) 20-31.
  • James G. March, "How Decisions Happen in Organizations", Human-Computer Interaction, 6 (1991) 95-117.
  • James G. March and Herbert A. Simon, "Organizations Revisited", Industrial and Corporate Change, 2 (1993) 299-316.
  • James G. March, "Rationality, Foolishness, and Adaptive Intelligence", Strategic Management Journal, 27 (2006) 201-214.
  • James G. March and Johan P. Olsen (en), "The Logic of Appropriateness", pp. 689–708 in Michael Moran, Martin Rein, and Robert E. Goodin (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Public Policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • James G. March and Johan P. Olsen (en), "Elaborating the 'New Institutionalism'", pp. 3-20 in R.A.W. Rhodes, S. Binder and B. Rockman (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Political Institutions. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • James G. March, "The Study of Organizations and Organizing Since 1945" , Organization Studies, 28 (2007) 9-19.
  • Mie Augier and James G. March, "The Pursuit of Relevance in Management Education", California Management Review, 49 (2007) 129-146.
  • James G. March, "Scholarship, Scholary Institutions, and Scholarly Communities", Organization Science, 18 (2007) 537-542.
  • James G. March, "Ibsen, Ideals, and the Subornation of Lies", Organization Studies, 28 (2007) 1277-1285.
  • Michael D. Cohen (en), James G. March, and Johan P. Olsen (en), "The Garbage Can Model", International Encyclopedia of Organization Studies, Sage, forthcoming 2008.
  • Mie Augier and James G. March, "Realism and Comprehension in Economics: A Footnote to an Exchange between Oliver E. Williamson and Herbert A. Simon", Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 66 (2008) 95-105.

Références[modifier | modifier le code]

  1. Les Organisations. James March et Herbert Simon, Dunod, 1999
  2. Richard M. Cyert and James G. March, A Behavioral Theory of the Firm, 1963. 2nd ed., Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1992
  3. James G. March and Johan P. Olsen (en), Rediscovering Institutions: The Organizational Basis of Politics. New York: Free Press/Macmillan, 1989. Translated into Italian and Spanish. ISBN 0-02-920115-2
  4. voir "Invitation à la lecture de James March", Thierry Weil, Presses des mines, 2000
  5. cette étude repose sur l'exploitation de données anthropologiques sur une quinzaine de tribus primitives, compilées dans les bases de données de Yale

Annexes[modifier | modifier le code]

Sources[modifier | modifier le code]

  • Stanford faculty bio
  • Invitation à la lecture de James March, Réflexions sur les processus de décision, d'apprentissage et de changement dans les organisations, Thierry Weil, Presses des mines, 2000.

Lien externe[modifier | modifier le code]

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