Haplogroupes Y-ADN dans les populations de l'Afrique du Nord

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Les principaux haplogroupes du chromosome Y des populations de l'Afrique du Nord berbérophones et arabophones sont : E1b1b1b (M81) et J1 (M267).

Par population[modifier | modifier le code]

Population n A/B E(xE1b1b) E-M35 E-M78 E-M81 E-M123 F K-M9 G I J1 J2 R1a R1b Autres Etudes
Algérie/Oran 102 0 7.9% 0 20.9% 45.1% 0 0 0 0 0 22.5% 4.9% 1% 11.8% 1% Robino et al. (2008)[1]
Algérie/Alger 35 0 2.9% 0 11.4% 32.9% 0 11.8% 2.9% 0 0 22.9% 5.7% 0 0 0 Arredi et al. (2004)[2]
Algérie/Kabyles/Tizi Ouzou 19 0 0 0 0 47.4% 10.5% 10.5% 0 0 0 15.8% 0 0 15.8% 0 Arredi et al. (2004)
Algérie/Mozabites 67 0 4.5% 0 1.5% 86.6% 1.5% 0 0 1.5% 0 1.5% 0 0 3% 0 Dugoujon et al. (2009)[3]
Tunisie/Tunis 148 0 2% 3.4% 5.4% 37.8% 2.7% 4.7% 0.7% 0 0 32.4% 3.4% 0.7% 6.1% 0.7% Arredi et al. (2004)
Tunisie (immigrants en Italie) 52 0 0 9.6% 15.4% 32.7% 0 1.9% 1.9% 0 0 34.6% 3.8% 0 0 0 Onofri et al. (2008)
Tunisie/Bou Omrane berbères 40 0 5% 0 5% 87.5% 0 2.5% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ennafaa et al. (2011)[4]
Tunisie/Bou Saad berbères 40 0 0 0 0 92.5% 0 0 0 0 0 5% 0 0 0 2.5% Ennafaa et al. (2011)
Tunisie/Jerbian Arabes 46 2.2% 0 0 15.2% 60.9% 4.3% 0 0 0 0 8.7% 2.2% 4.3% 2.2% 0 Ennafaa et al. (2011)
Tunisie/Jerbian berbères 47 0 0 0 17% 76.6% 0 4.25% 2.1% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ennafaa et al. (2011)
Tunisie/Chenini–Douiret berbères 27 0 0 0 0 100% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Karima Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2011)[5]
Tunisie/Sened berbères 35 0 0 0 0 65.7% 0 2.9% 0 0 0 31.4% 0 0 0 0 Karima Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2011)
Tunisie/Jradou berbères 32 0 0 0 0 100% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Karima Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2011)
Tunisie/Zaghouan 32 0 0 0 3.1% 40.6% 0 9.4% 0 0 0 43.8% 3.1% 0 0 0 Karima Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2011)
Tunisie/Cosmopolitan Tunis 33 0 0 3.0% 6.0% 54.5% 3.0% 6.0% 0 3.0% 0 24.2% 0 0 0 0 Karima Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2011)
Maroc 221 0 6.4% 4.1% 6.8% 65% 0 0.9% 1.8% 0.9% 0.5% 5% 4.1% 0 4.1% 0 Fregel et al. (2009)
Maroc/Central 87 0 9.8% 0 6.1% 56.1% 0 0 0 0 0 19.5% 8.5% 0 0 0% Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2013)[6]
Maroc 51 3.9% 5.9% 5.9% 5.9% 54.9% 0 0 0 0 0 19.6% 0 0 3.9% 0 Onofri et al. (2008)
Maroc/Amizmiz Valley 33 3% 6.1% 0 3% 84.8% 3% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Alvarez et al. (2009)
Maroc/Asni berbères 54 0 9.3% 1.9% 3.7% 79.6% 0 0 0 0 0 1.9% 0 0 1.9% 1.9% Dugoujon et al. (2009)
Maroc/Middle Atlas berbères 69 2.9% 5.7% 0 10.1% 71.0% 0 0 0 4.3% 0 5.8% 0 0 0 0 Dugoujon et al. (2009)
Maroc/Bouhria berbères 67 0 7.5% 0 1.5% 77.6% 0 0 0 6.0% 0 1.5% 1.5% 4.5% 0 0 Dugoujon et al. (2009)
Sahrawi 89 0 20.2% 0 0 59.6% 0 0 0 0 0 20.2% 0 0 0 0 Fregel et al. (2009)
Libye 215 0 9.5% 0 11.1% 35.9% 1.5% 0 0 4.2% 0 30.5% 3.4% 0.4% 0 3.4% Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2013)
Égypte/Western Désert 35 0 5.7% 5.7% 28.6% 28.6% 0 0 0 0 0 31.4% 0 0 0 0 Kujanová et al. (2009)[7]
Égypte 147 2.7% 2.7% 0 18.4% 8.2% 9.5% 0 7.5% 9.5% 0 19.7% 12.2% 3.4% 4.1% 2.1% Luis et al. (2004)[8]
Égypte/Siwa berbères 93 28.0% 6.5% 2.2% 6.5% 1.1% 2.2% 0 0 3.2% 0 7.5% 6.5% 0 28.0% 8.3% Dugoujon et al. (2009)
Égypte(Nord) 44 2.3% 0 4.5% 27.3% 11.4% 9.1% 6.8% 2.3% 0 0 9.1% 9.1% 2.3% 9.9% 6.8% Arredi et al. (2004)
Égypte(Sud) 29 0.0% 0 0 17.2% 6.9% 6.9% 17.2% 10.3% 0 3.4% 20.7% 3.4% 0 13.8% 0 Arredi et al. (2004)
Iles Canaries 652 0 1.4% 0 3.5% 8.3% 2.3% 0 0 4% 9.7% 3.5% 10.4% 2.8% 50.6% 0 Fregel et al. (2009)[9]
Touaregs de Libye 47 0 42.5% 0 0 48.9% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6.4% 2.1% Ottoni et al. (2011)[10]
Touaregs du Mali 11 0 9.1% 0 9.1% 81.8% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pereira et al. (2011)[11]
Touaregs du Burkina Faso 18 0 16.7% 0 0 77.8% 0 0 5.6% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pereira et al. (2011)
Touaregs du Niger 18 5.6% 44.4% 0 5.6% 11.1% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 33.3% 0 Pereira et al. (2011)

Par pays[modifier | modifier le code]

Pays[12] n A B E-M33 E-M2 E-M35* E-M78* E-V12 E-V32 E-V13 E-V22 E-V65 E-M81 E-M34 F G I J1 J2 K L O P,R Q R1a R1b-V88 R1b-M269 R2 T
Maroc 760 0.26 0.66 2.76 3.29 4.21 0.79 0.26 - 0.26 1.84 3.68 67.37 0.66 0.26 0.66 0.13 6.32 1.32 0.53 - - 0.26 - - 0.92 3.55 - -
Algérie 156 - - 0.64 5.13 0.64 1.92 0.64 - 0.64 1.28 1.92 44.23 1.28 3.85 - - 21.79 4.49 0.64 - - - 0.64 0.64 2.56 7.04 - -
Tunisie 601 - 0.17 0.5 0.67 1.66 - - - - 3 3.16 62.73 1.16 2.66 0.17 0.17 16.64 2.83 0.33 - - 0.33 - 0.5 1.83 0.33 - 1.16
Sahara/Mauritanie 189 - 0.53 5.29 6.88 - - - - - - - 55.56 11.11 - - - 13.23 - - - - - - - 6.88 0.53 - -
Égypte 370 1.35 - 0.54 2.43 3.24 0.81 7.03 1.62 0.81 9.19 2.43 11.89 6.76 1.08 5.68 0.54 20.81 6.75 0.27 0.81 0.27 0.54 0.27 2.16 2.97 2.97 0.54 6.22

Origine géographique des lignées du chromosome Y[modifier | modifier le code]

Région[13] Maroc (n=760) Algerie (n=156) Tunisie (n=601) Mauritanie/Sahara (n=189) Egypte (n=370)
Afrique du Nord 93.90% 99% 98.90% 95.60% 93%
Moyen-Orient 99.40% 99.50% 93.50% 99.40% 96.20%
Europe 99.90% 99.30% 91.70% 90% 93.50%
Afrique de l'Ouest 97% 98.30% 93% 99.10% 95.90%
Afrique de l'Est 95.80% 91.90% 3% 91.60% 100%

Voir aussi[modifier | modifier le code]

Notes[modifier | modifier le code]

  1. Robino C, Crobu F, Di Gaetano C, et al., « Analysis of Y-chromosomal SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes in an Algérien population sample », International Journal of Legal Medicine, vol. 122, no 3,‎ mai 2008, p. 251–5 (PMID 17909833, DOI 10.1007/s00414-007-0203-5)
  2. Arredi B, Poloni ES, Paracchini S, et al., « A predominantly neolithic origin for Y-chromosomal DNA variation in North Africa », American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 75, no 2,‎ août 2004, p. 338–45 (PMID 15202071, PMCID 1216069, DOI 10.1086/423147)
  3. Dugoujon J.M., Coudray C., Torroni A., Cruciani F., Scozzari F., Moral P., Louali N., Kossmann M. The Berber and the berbères: Genetic and linguistic diversities. In: Become Eloquent. Edited by J.M. Hombert and F. d’Errico. Ed. John Benjamins. pp 123-146; 2009
  4. Ennafaa, Fregel, Khodjet-el-khil et Gonzalez, Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome microstructure in Tunisie,‎ 2011 (DOI 10.1038/jhg.2011.92, PMID 21833004, lire en ligne)
  5. Fadhlaoui-Zid, K., Martinez-Cruz, B., Khodjet-el-khil, H., Mendizabal, I., Benammar-Elgaaied, A. and Comas, D. (2011), Genetic structure of Tunisien ethnic groups revealed by paternal lineages. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. DOI:10.1002/ajpa.21581
  6. Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2013), Genome-Wide and Paternal Diversity Reveal a Recent Origin of Human Populations in North Africa
  7. Martina Kujanová, Luísa Pereira, Verónica Fernandes, Joana B. Pereira, Viktor Černý, Near Eastern Neolithic genetic input in a small oasis of the Egypteian Western Desert, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Volume 140, Issue 2, pages 336–346, October 2009
  8. Luis JR, Rowold DJ, Regueiro M, Caeiro B, Cinnioglu C, Roseman C, Underhill PA, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Herrera RJ (2004) The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: evidence for bidirectional corridors of human migrations" Am J Hum Genet 74:532–544
  9. Rosa Fregel et al., « Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European », BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol. 9,‎ 2009, p. 181 (PMID 19650893, PMCID 2728732, DOI 10.1186/1471-2148-9-181)
  10. Ottoni C, Larmuseau MH, Vanderheyden N, Martínez-Labarga C, Primativo G, Biondi G, Decorte R, Rickards O., Deep into the roots of the Libyan Tuareg: a genetic survey of their paternal heritage, Am J Phys Anthropol. 2011 May;145(1):118-24. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21473. Epub 2011 Feb 10
  11. Pereira et al. , Y chromosomes and mtDNA of Tuareg nomads from the African Sahel , European Journal of Human Genetics (2010) 18, 915–923; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.21; published online 17 March 2010
  12. Bekada A, Fregel R, Cabrera VM, Larruga JM, Pestano J, et al. (2013) Introducing the Algerian Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Profiles into the North African Landscape" PLoS ONE 8(2) e56775. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0056775
  13. Bekada A, Fregel R, Cabrera VM, Larruga JM, Pestano J, et al. (2013) Introducing the Algerian Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Profiles into the North African Landscape" PLoS ONE 8(2) e56775. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0056775, Table 2. Geographic components (%) considered in Y-chromosome and mtDNA lineages.