Charles Davenport

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Charles Davenport

Charles Davenport, né le 1er juin 1866 à Stamford (Connecticut) et mort le 18 février 1944, est un biologiste américain. Ses domaines de recherche concernent la variation, l’hybridation et la sélection naturelle.

Charles Davenport est l'un des chefs de file du mouvement eugénique américain qui est responsable directement de la stérilisation 60 000 unfit (d'individus ou groupes sans valeurs sélectives) aux États-Unis. Ce mouvement a influencé l'eugénisme en Europe dont en Allemagne sous le nazisme[réf. nécessaire].

De retour d'un voyage en Angleterre où il rencontre Francis Galton, il formule le désir d’établir un laboratoire expérimentale où il souhaite entreprendre des recherches sur l’évolution et l’hérédité afin d’améliorer l’espèce humaine. En 1904, une station de recherche est ainsi créée à Cold Spring Harbor. C'est la Station pour l'étude expérimentale de l'évolution (Station for the Experimental Study of Evolution).

En 1923 il crée l'American Eugenics Society.

Bibliographie[modifier | modifier le code]

  • 1891-1900
    • Observations on Budding in Paludicella and Some Other Bryozoa (1891)
    • On Urnatella Gracilis (1896)
    • Experimental Morphology (1897–99)
    • Statistical Methods, with Special References to Biological Variation (1899; second edition, 1904)
    • Introduction to Zoölogy, with Gertrude Crotty Davenport (1900)
  • 1906
    • Inheritance in Poultry, Carnegie Institution Publication, No, 52 (Washington)
  • 1907
    • Heredity of Eye-Color in Man, Science, 26:589-592. (With Gertrude C. Davenport.)
  • 1908
    • Heredity of Hair-Form in Man, Amer. Nat. 42:341-349. (With Gertrude C. Davenport.) The American Breeders' Association. Science, 27:-4i3-4i7.
    • Degeneration, Albinism and Inbreeding, Science, 28 :454-455.
  • 1909
    • Inheritance of Characteristics in Domestic Fowl, Carnegie Institution Publication, No. 121 (Washington)
    • Heredity of Hair Color in Man, Amer. Nat., 43:193-211. (With Gertrude C. Davenport.)
    • Fit and Unfit Matings, Bull. Amer. Acad. Med., 11:657-67O. 4 figures.
  • 1910
    • Eugenics—The Science of Human Improvement by Better Breeding, Henry Holt & Co., N. Y. 35 pp.
    • Heredity of Skin Pigment in Man, Amer. Nat., 44:641-731. (With Gertrude C. Davenport.)
  • 1911
    • Heredity of Skin Pigment in Man, Amer. Nat., 44:641-731. (With Gertrude C. Davenport.)
  • 1912
    • The Origin and Control of Mental Defectiveness, Pop. Sci. Mo., 80:87-90.
    • The Nams. The Feeble-Minded As Country Dwellers, The Survey, 27:1844-1845.
    • The Inheritance of Physical and Mental Traits of Man and Their Application to Eugenics, Chapter VIII in "Heredity and Eugenics." The University of Chicago Press, 269-288.
    • The Geography of Man in Relation to Eugenics, Chapter IX in "Heredity and Eugenics." The University of Chicago Press, 289-310.
    • The Hill Folk. Report on a Rural Community of Hereditary Defectives, Eugenics Record Office Mem. No. I, 56 p. 4 text figures, 3 charts. (With Florence H. Danielson.)
    • The Nam Family. A Study in Cacogenics, Eugenics Record Office Mem. No. 2, 85 p. 4 text figures, 4 charts. (With Arthur H. Estabrook.)
    • How Did Feeble-Mindedness Originate in the First Instance?, The Training School, 9:87-90.
    • Eugenics in Its Relation to Social Problems, The N. Y. Assoc. for Improving the Condition of the Poor. Pub. No. 70, 7 pp.
  • 1913
    • Heredity, Culpability, Praiseworthiness, Punishment and Reward, Pop. Sci. Mo., 82:33-39.
    • State Laws Limiting Marriage Selection Examined in the Light of Eugenics, Eugenics Record Office Bull. No. 9, 66 p. 2 charts, 3 tables.
  • 1914
    • Skin Color of Mulattoes, Jour. Hered., 5:556-558.
  • 1915
    • Inheritance of Temperament, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 12:182.
    • The Feebly Inhibited. I. Violent Temper and Its Inheritance, Jour. Nerv. Mental Dis. 42:593-628. Also, Eugenics Record Office Bull. No. 12.
    • The Feebly Inhibited: (A). Nomadism or the Wandering Impulse With Special Reference to Heredity. (B). Inheritance of Temperament, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 236, 158 p. 89 figures.
    • Field Work an Indispensable Aid to State Care of the Socially Inadequate, Read at 42nd Annual Session of the Nat. Conf. of Charities and Corrections, May 15, 16-19.
    • The Racial Element in National Vitality. Pop. Sci. Mo., 86:331-333.
    • A Dent in the Forehead, Jour. Hered. 6:163-164.
    • The Heredity of Stature, Science, 42 :495.
    • Hereditary Fragility of Bone (Fragilitas Osseus, Osteopsathyrosis), Eugenics Record Office Bull. No. 14, 31 pp. (With H. S. Conard.)
    • How to Make a Eugenical Family Study. Eugenics Record Office Bull, No. 13, 35 pp. 4 charts and 2 tables. (With H. H. Laughlin.)
  • 1916
    • Heredity of Albinism. Jour. Hered., 7:221-223.Introduction in "The Jukes in 1915" by Arthur H. Estabrook. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 240.
    • Heredity of Stature. (Abstract), Proc. XIX Internat. Congress of Americanists.
  • 1917
    • The Effect of Race Intermingling, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, 56 :364-368.
  • 1919
    • A Comparison of White and Colored Troops in Respect to Incidence of Disease, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 5:58-67. (With A. G. Love.)
  • 1920
    • Heredity of Constitutional Mental Disorders, Psychol. Bull., 17 :300-310. Reprinted as Eugenics Record Office Bull. No. 20. 11 pp.
  • 1921
    • Comparative Social Traits of Various Races, School and Society, 14:344-348.
  • 1923
    • Comparative Social Traits of Various Races, Second Study. Jour. Applied Psychol., 7:127-134. (With Laura T. Craytor.)
    • The Deviation of Idiot Boys From Normal Boys in Bodily Proportions, Proc. 47th Ann. Session Amer. Assoc. for Study of Feeble-minded: 8 pp. (With Bertha E. Martin.)
    • Hereditary Influence of the Immigrant, Jour. Nat. Inst. Soc. Sci., 8 :48-49.
  • 1925
    • What Proportion of Feeblemindedness Is Hereditary? Investigation and Reports, Assoc. Res. Nerv. Mental Dis., 3 :295-299.
    • Notes on Physical Anthropology of Australian Aborigines and Black-White Hybrids, Amer. Jour. Phys. Anthrop., 73-94.
  • 1926
    • Human Metamorphosis, Amer. Jour. Phys. Anthrop.. 9 :2O5-232.
    • Notes Sur l'Anthropologie des Aborigines Australiens et des Metis Blancs et Noirs (Traduction de Mile. M. Renaud.), Bull. de la Société d'Étude des formes humaines. Annee 4 :3-22.
    • The Skin Colors of the Races of Mankind, Nat. Hist. 26 :44-49.
    • A Remarkable Family of Albinos, Eugenical News, 11 :50-52. (With Grace Allen.)
  • 1927
    • Heredity of Human Eye Color, Bibliographica Genetica, 3:443-463.
  • 1928
    • Control of Universal Mongrelism. How a Eugenist Looks at the Matter of Marriage, Good Health, 10-11 (June).
    • Crime, Heredity and Environment, Jour. Hered., 19 :307-313.
    • Nasal Breadth in Negro × White Crossing, Eugenical News, 13:36-37. (With Morris Steggerda.)
    • Race Crossing in Jamaica, Sci. Mo., 27 :225-238.
    • Are There Genetically Based Mental Differences Between the Races? Science, 68 :628.
  • 1929
    • Do Races Differ in Mental Capacity? Human Biol., 1.
    • Laws Against Cousin Marriages; Would Eugenicists Alter Them? Eugenics, 2 122-23.
    • Race Crossing in Jamaica, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 395. IX - f-516 p. 29 plates. (With Morris Steggerda.)
  • 1930
    • The Mingling of Races, Chap. XXIII in "Human Biology and Racial Welfare," ed. by E. V. Cowdry, 553-565.
    • Intermarriage Between Races; A Eugenic or Dysgenic Force? Eugenics, 3:58-61. (Discussion by C. B. D., Hrdlicka, Newman and Herskowitz.)
    • Interracial Tests of Mental Capacity, In Proc. and Papers of 9th International Congress of Psychology.
    • Some Criticisms of "Race Crossing in Jamaica", Science, 72:501-502.
  • 1934
    • The Value of Genealogical Investigation to the Promotion of the Welfare of Our Families and Our Nation, American Pioneer Records, 2:143-144.
    • Better Human Strains, 25th Annual Report Board of Visitors, Letchworth Village, 49-51.
    • How Early in Ontogeny Do Human Racial Characters Show Themselves? Eugen Fischer-Festband, Zeitschr. f. Morph. u. Anthrop., 34 :76-78.
  • 1935
    • Influence of Economic Conditions on the Mixture of Races, Zeitschrift fir Rassenkunde, 1 :17-19.
  • 1937
    • An Improved Technique for Measuring Head Features, Growth, 1 :3~5.
  • 1938
    • Genetics of Human Inter-Racial Hybrids, Current Science. Special Number on "Genetics" (March) 34-36.
  • 1939
    • The Genetical Basis of Resemblance in the Form of the Nose, in Kultur and Rasse, Festschrift zum 60. Geburtstag Otto Reches, p. 60-64. J. F. Lehmann's Verlag München/Berlin.
  • 1940
    • Developmental Curve of Head Height/Head Length Ratio and Its Inheritance, Amer. Jour. Phys. Anthrop., 26:187-190.
  • 1944
    • Dr. Storr's Facial Type of the Feeble-Minded, Amer. Jour. Men. Def., 48:339-344.